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頭痛の男性
頭痛の男性

頭痛への最善の対策を取るためには?4つの頭痛のタイプと対策

頭痛の男

ときには日常生活に支障を来してしまうこともある頭痛。本当につらいものですよね。

頭痛の対策には様々な方法がありますが、対策を間違ってしまうとかえって逆効果になる場合もあります。

頭痛には大きくわけて二つ、慢性的におこる一次性頭痛と、明確な疾患が原因でおこる二次性頭痛があります。一次性頭痛はさらに3つのタイプにわけられます。頭痛の対策を取るときには、それぞれのタイプに適した対策を取ることが大切です。

本記事では、頭痛の4つのタイプとそれぞれの対策をご紹介します。

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1.頭痛の4つのタイプ

頭痛の男

自分の頭痛がどのタイプの頭痛であるのかを理解することは、頭痛への対策を取るために重要なことです。

なぜなら、頭痛への対策はその頭痛のタイプによって異なり、場合によっては全く逆効果となってしまう場合があるからです。

また、頭痛のなかには、生命にかかわるような危険な病気が原因となっているものもあるため、頭痛がどのようなタイプであるのかを見極めることが大切になります。

頭痛のタイプは、その症状によってわけることができます。それでは次に、4つの頭痛のタイプとその症状の特徴をご説明します。

1-1.片頭痛(一次性頭痛)

頭部の血管が拡張し、炎症を起こしたときに発生する頭痛です。このため、頭の片側、または両側が脈打つようにズキンズキンと痛みます。
【症状の特徴】

  • 月に数回、週に1~2回など発作的に起こり、数時間から3日間にわたり痛みが続く
  • 寝込んでしまったり仕事が手につかなかったりなど、日常生活に支障を来すほど痛みが激しい
  • 吐き気やおう吐を伴う
  • 光や音に対して過敏になる
  • 頭痛の前兆として、視野の中心付近にギザギザした光が見える
  • ストレスのある状態が続いて、一段落してホッとしたときや、寝過ぎたときに起こる

1-2.緊張型頭痛(一次性頭痛)

長時間の無理な姿勢やパソコンの使用などによって、頭から肩にかけての筋肉が緊張し血流が悪くなって乳酸などの疲労物質が筋肉にたまり、これが神経を刺激して引き起こされる頭痛です。
また、精神的に緊張した状態が長く続いた場合にもおこります。

【症状の特徴】

  • 頭を締め付けるような重い痛み
  • 首や肩の凝りを伴う
  • 不安感、疲労感、抑うつ症状を伴う
  • 軽いめまいを伴うことがある
  • 毎日のように一日中一定の鈍い痛みが続く

1-3.群発頭痛(一次性頭痛)

群発頭痛の原因についてはまだはっきりとわかっていません。

この患者はおよそ1000人に一人と言われ、比較的珍しいものです。また、片頭痛・緊張型頭痛が女性に多いのに対して、男性に多くみられます。

【症状の特徴】

  • 急に激しい痛みが襲い、15~180分ほど続く
  • 数週間~数年の期間をおきながら頭痛が発生し、一度発生すると1~2か月にわたって何回も発作的に発生する
  • 片側の目の奥が強烈に痛む
  • 目の周りやおでこの周りが痛む
  • 目の充血、鼻水・鼻づまり、発汗を伴う
  • 発作の期間中にアルコールを飲むと、必ずといっていいほど頭痛発作がおこる

1-4.二次性頭痛

二次性頭痛は頭痛患者のおよそ一割程度であるといわれています。
しかし、二次性頭痛には、見逃すと死につながる頭痛が含まれているため、「いつもの頭痛」と油断せずに察知することが重要となります。

二次性頭痛が疑われる症状を以下に挙げます。
日本頭痛学会 頭痛ガイドラインより

  • 突然の頭痛
  • 今まで経験したことがない頭痛
  • いつもと様子の異なる頭痛
  • 頻度と程度が増していく頭痛
  • 50歳以降に初発の頭痛
  • 神経脱落症状(*1)を有する頭痛
  • がんや免疫不全の病態を有する患者の頭痛
  • 精神症状を有する患者の頭痛
  • 発熱・項部硬直・髄膜刺激症状を有する頭痛

(*1)神経脱落症状:該当する神経の働きがなくなったために起こる症状。

以上のような症状が見られる二次性頭痛の原因となる疾患としては、くも膜下出血脳出血脳腫瘍髄膜炎など、危険な病気もあります。

このため、このような場合はすぐに病院で診察を受けることが必要となります。

2.頭痛のタイプ別対策

それぞれのタイプの頭痛は、発生のメカニズムが異なるため、対策もそれぞれのタイプに応じたものが必要となります。

本記事では、それぞれのタイプに応じた予防的な対策、頭痛が発生した後の対策をご紹介します。

2-1.片頭痛の対策

片頭痛は収縮していた頭の血管が拡張するときに起こる頭痛です。

このため予防対策としては、血管が収縮・拡張するような状態を作らない収縮した血管が一気に拡張しないようにする、頭痛が起きたあとは血管の拡張を鎮めるということがポイントとなります。

【片頭痛の予防対策】

  • 生活習慣を改善する:睡眠不足、睡眠過多、過労などによるストレス、過剰なアルコール摂取を避ける
  • 刺激を避ける:蛍光灯などのまぶしい光、騒音、香水の匂いなどを避ける
  • 食べ物に注意する:ワイン、チーズ、チョコレート、ハム、サラミなど誘因となる食べ物の摂取を避ける
  • 温度変化に注意する:寒い場所から暖かい場所への急な移動、直射日光を長時間浴びる、といったことを避ける

【片頭痛が起きたときの対策】

  • 頭部を冷やす:痛む箇所にジェルシートや保冷剤などを当てて、直接冷やす
  • カフェインを摂る:カフェインには血管を収縮させる働きがあるため、コーヒーや緑茶を飲む
  • 刺激の少ない環境へ:人ごみを避けたり、サングラスをかけたりして、刺激を避ける

2-2.緊張型頭痛の対策

緊張型頭痛は、筋肉(特に首から肩にかけて)に疲労が溜まったり、精神的なストレスがかかる状態が続いりしたときに起こる頭痛です。

このため、予防対策としては身体的、精神的ストレスが溜まらないようにする、頭痛がおきた後は緊張をほぐすことがポイントとなります。

【緊張型頭痛の予防対策】

  • 姿勢に注意する:デスクワークなどでうつむきの姿勢が続くと首の筋肉に負担かかり、緊張型頭痛の原因となるため、机の高さを調節するなど首の筋肉に負担がかからないようにする
  • 枕を合わせる:枕の高さを頸椎と後頸筋群に負担がかからないようにチェックする
  • 精神的なストレス回避:過度の仕事を避ける、趣味の時間を楽しむなど、精神的なストレスを和らげる工夫をする

【緊張型頭痛が起きたときの対策】

  • 体操などで筋肉の緊張をほぐす:肩・首を回すなどの軽い体操で筋肉の緊張を和らげる
  • ツボを押す:「百会」「合谷」などのツボを押す
  • 身体を温める:ぬるめのお湯で入浴し、血流を促す
  • 軽い運動:軽い運動で血流を促す

2-3.群発頭痛の対策

群発頭痛の発生自体を予防する方法はわかっていません。
群発頭痛が発生している期間に、頭痛発生の誘因を避けることが大切です。

【群発頭痛発生期間の頭痛誘因】

  • 飲酒:群発期の飲酒は量にかかわらず、ほぼ頭痛発生につながります
  • 喫煙
  • 入浴:シャワー程度なら大丈夫です
  • 高山への登山
  • 飛行機の利用
  • 明るい照明、日光

【群発頭痛が起きたときの対策】

  • 深呼吸をする
  • 睡眠時間を確保する
  • イミグラン注射:自分で打つことのできる注射キットが認可されているため、医師に処方してもらって頭痛発生時に自分で注射を打つ
  • トリプタン系の鼻スプレー:持ち運びにも便利なため、医師に相談してみましょう
  • 酸素吸入:頭痛外来で酸素吸入をさせてもらう

2-4.二次性頭痛の対策

二次性頭痛には、生命にかかわる危険な病気が原因となるものがあります。

このため、少しでも二次性頭痛が疑われる症状が現れたら、すぐに病院の診察を受けることが大切です。

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まとめ:頭痛の症状からタイプを見極め、適切な対策を

頭痛には様々な原因、対策があるため、自分の頭痛のタイプを見極め、適切な対処をとることで、頭痛を和らげることができます。

慢性頭痛は、普段の生活を見直せば予防できる要素もあります。
また、頭痛が発生したときの対策がわかっていれば、少しでもつらい頭痛を和らげることができます。

頭痛のタイプを判断する方法として頭痛チェックシートがあります。
質問にはい・いいえで答えるだけで、自分の頭痛がどのタイプの頭痛であるのか簡単にチェックできます。

また、現在では頭痛外来にかかれば、適切な対処方法を教えてもらったり、薬を処方してもらったりすることができるようになりました。
病院にかかる前には、どのような症状であるかを正確に伝えられるように、以下の内容を記録しておくとよいでしょう。

  • 頭痛はいつ、どのように起きたか
  • 痛みの持続時間
  • 頻度
  • どこが痛むか
  • どのように痛むか
  • どれくらい痛むか
  • 頭痛のほかに吐き気やおう吐、前兆などの症状があるか
  • 頭痛を悪化させるもの、軽くするものはあるか
  • 生活への支障度
  • 薬の効果

最後に、頭痛には生命にかかわる病気が潜んでいる場合もあるため、少しでもおかしいと思ったら、くれぐれも自己判断はせず、病院にかかるようにしてください。

頭痛は本当につらいものですが、本記事をご参考に少しでも頭痛の悩みを解消していただければ幸いです。

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