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食べる男、デザート、朝食
食べる男、デザート、朝食

病院に行った方が良い?頭痛を伴う食あたりの原因と対策方法

食べる男

 
食あたり、経験がある方は多いのではないでしょうか。初夏から秋に日本は高温多湿となり、病原体が繁殖しやすく食中毒の発生件数も増加します。原因となる細菌は様々。嘔吐、下痢だけではなく、風邪と間違えるような症状があるばあいも。

こちらでは、頭痛を伴う食あたりの原因と対策方法をご紹介します。

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食あたりによる頭痛の原因

食あたりとは

チキン

食あたりは食中毒とも呼ばれることがあり、食べ物に含まれている菌やウィルスが原因となって起きてしまう健康障害のことを指します。原因となる食べ物は様々ありますが、カキをはじめ、牛肉・豚肉・鶏肉などの肉類、卵、カニ、サバなどがあります。どれも体内に食あたりの原因となる細菌やウィルスを保菌しているため、生や生焼けで食べることで食あたりを起こしてしまうことがあります。

食あたりの症状としては、主に「腹痛」「下痢」「嘔吐」が知られていますが、そのほかにも「発熱」「頭痛」「寒気」や「じんましん」などが挙げられます。

原因となる細菌

頭痛を伴う食あたりの原因となる細菌は様々なものがあります。

ノロウイルス
ノロウイルスの感染によっておこる食中毒です。カキなどの生の食品や飲料水から感染しますが、人から人への感染も報告されています。

原因:カキ、生のまま食べるサラダ、果物、ケーキ。

症状:主な症状は嘔吐と下痢で、発病当初に激しい症状をおこすことが特徴です。頭痛、発熱、咽頭痛など、かぜとよく似た症状が出る場合もあります。 通常は3日以内に治ります。

カンピロバクター食中毒
主に食肉に多く発生します。食肉は加熱、飲料水は煮沸して滅菌します。少量で感染し、人から人へ直接感染することもあります。

原因:レバ刺し、鶏肉、不完全消毒の飲料水など。犬や猫などのペットからの感染もあります。

症状:感染後2~7日で症状が出ます。頭痛、腹痛、発熱、水のような下痢、血便など。

リステリア症
自然界に広く分布し、低温でも発育。妊婦は特に注意です。

原因:低温で保存された乳製品、食肉加工品、生野菜。

症状:インフルエンザのような症状が特徴。38~39℃の発熱、頭痛、悪寒、嘔吐などがあり、急性胃腸炎の症状は通常はおこりません。重症になると、脳脊髄膜炎をおこし、意識障害やけいれんなどをしめすこともあります。

ブドウ球菌食中毒
人ののどや鼻、傷口などに日常的にいる菌。それが人の手を介して食品に感染します。

原因:おにぎり、サンドイッチなど素手で調理した食品。

症状:潜伏期間は2~4時間。はじめ頭痛、めまい、違和感、などがあり、間もなく胃のむかつき、激しい嘔吐に続き、腹痛、下痢が起こります。おおむね1~2日で回復します。

予防方法

  • 食肉は十分に加熱して食べる
  • 食肉は他の食品と分けて保存し、早めに食べる
  • 飲料水は煮沸するなど、完全に滅菌してから飲む
  • まな板、包丁、ふきんなどはよく洗い、熱湯や漂白剤で殺菌する
  • すぐ食べないものは必ず冷蔵庫に入れ、暖かい所に長時間放置しない

食中毒の対処方法

食中毒受診のタイミング

軽度の腸管感染症であれば、一般には1~2日で症状は軽減し、自然に治ります。激しい下痢、嘔吐、発熱などの症状、また複数の症状を伴うときは、病院を受診します。放っておくと重症化し、死に至る場合もあるので医師の診察を受けることが大切です。特に次の場合には、すみやかに受診してください。

血便がある
感染侵入型の病原体が腸壁の細胞を破壊。敗血症や腹膜炎を起こすことも。

下痢が1日10回以上
水様性の下痢が1日10回以上だと脱水になります。特に小児や高齢者は危険です。

海外旅行での感染
日本では稀な病原体に感染し、特別な治療が必要なことも。

薬は病院で

薬を自己判断で服用するのはやめましょう。下痢や嘔吐などの症状は体内に入り込んだ毒素を排出しようとする生体反応です。腸の働きを止めるタイプの下痢止めや、以前病院で処方された抗生物質などが残っていてものんではいけません。また、激しい下痢や嘔吐であっても水分をこまめに補給して脱水を防ぐことが重要です。

家庭での注意のポイント

手洗い
感染者も家族も調理や食事の前、トイレ後には、必ず手洗いをします。手洗いで気をつける点は、病原体が入り込みやすい爪の間をブラシなどで重点的に洗い、流水で十分に洗い流すことが重要です。さらに市販の消毒用アルコールでの消毒も有効です。ノロの場合はアルコールは無効で次亜塩素酸消毒が必要。

消毒
水洗トイレの把手やドアノブ、便器など、菌に汚染されやすい場所を消毒用アルコールなどでこまめに消毒します。

便に触れない
感染者の便を家族が処理する場合には、ゴム手袋や使い捨ての手袋を使用し、便で汚れている可能性のある下着などの洗濯は、家族のものと別に洗います。

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まとめ:頭痛を伴う食あたりはこう対処しよう

軽度であれば一般には1~2日で症状は軽減し、自然に治ります。しかし以下の場合は危険です。すぐさま病院を受診してください。

  • 血便がある
  • 下痢が1日10回以上
  • 海外旅行での感染

なお、子供や高齢者は重症化しやすいので、経過を見ながら病院へ行くことも検討するようにしておきましょう。

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