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偏頭痛の女性
偏頭痛の女性

脈打つように痛む頭痛の原因と対策

頭痛女

 

頭痛持ちの方多いですよね。頭が痛いと何も手につかなくなって、いろいろ支障が出てしまいます。しかし頭痛も種類があって、その頭痛にあった対策をしないと逆効果になってしまいます。

こちらでは、脈打つように痛む頭痛の原因と対策方法をご紹介します。

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脈打つように痛む頭痛は何?

慢性頭痛

書類医師

慢性頭痛とは、精密検査を受けてもはっきりした原因や異常が見つからないのに、くり返し起こる頭痛のことをいいます。命に別状はないものの、放置すれば生活の質(QOL)を低下させることにもなります。慢性頭痛は、大きく次の3つに分けられます。

間違った対処法では治らないどころか悪化させてしまうことが多いため、まず自分の頭痛のタイプをきちんと把握することがとても重要です。

片頭痛

女性に多く、こめかみあたりが脈打つようにズキンズキンと痛むのが特徴。脳の血管が拡張して血流が増加し、神経を刺激することで起こります。

片頭痛は実は原因が分かっていない不思議な頭痛です。諸説ある中で有力視されているのは「三叉神経血管説」。何らかのきっかけで頭の血管の周りにある「三叉神経」が刺激され、脳血管を拡張する痛み物質が出ることによって頭痛が引き起こされるという説です。片頭痛を引き起こすきっかけは人それぞれで、生理、ストレス、人ごみ、寝不足や眠りすぎなどが代表的。なるべくストレスを減らし、規則正しい生活を送ることが大切です。女性ホルモンのエストロゲンの影響や遺伝的傾向があり、寝込んだり、吐き気やおう吐を伴うなど生活に支障をきたす人も多いです。

症状

  • こめかみを中心に、脈打つようにズキンズキンと痛む
  • いったん痛みが起こると数時間~3日ほど続く
  • 吐き気やおう吐を伴ったり、音や光、においに敏感になる
  • 頭を振ったり体を動かすと痛みがひどくなる
  • 痛みが出る前に、あくびが出る、キラキラするものが見えるなどの前ぶれ症状がある

緊張型頭痛

男女ともに多くみられる、首や肩のこりを伴う頭痛。首、肩、背中の筋肉が緊張して血液循環が悪くなり、たまった疲労物質が神経を刺激して起こります。長時間のデスクワークや猫背など姿勢の悪さ、精神的なストレスなどが原因になります。ほかのタイプの頭痛に合併して現れることも少なくありません。

症状

  • 頭全体または後頭部が重苦しい感じ、こめかみが締めつけられるような痛みが続く
  • 首や肩のこり、背中のはり、目の疲れなどに伴って起こる
  • 寒くて体が冷えるときなどに痛む
  • 入浴したり運動したりすると痛みが軽くなる
  • 緊張やストレス、疲労で悪化しやすく、休養やリラックスによってよくなる

群発頭痛

成人男性に多く見られ、1年に1~数回、激しい頭痛が約1カ月続いてぱたりと治まります。

症状

  • 片方の目の奥が激しく痛む
  • 1年に1~数回決まった時期にだけ起こり、一旦出ると約1カ月反復する。1日のなかでも起こる時間がだいたい決まっており、1~2時間の激しい痛みである
  • 痛みのあるほうの目が充血したり、涙や鼻水が出る

脈打つように痛む頭痛「片頭痛」の対処方法

応急処置

  • 痛む部位に氷枕やアイスパックなどを当て、頭痛が治まるまで冷やす
  • 薄暗い静かな部屋で安静にする
  • コーヒー、紅茶、緑茶などのカフェイン飲料をとる(血管を収縮させる)

予防方法

まぶしい光やうるさい音を避ける
蛍光灯などの明るい光やうるさい騒音、香水の匂いなどが、頭痛を引き起こす誘因になることもあります。

生活習慣改善による治療
発作の予防として大事なのは、発作の誘因になるようなものを減らすことなのです。生活習慣における誘因として、例えば、睡眠不足、睡眠過多、過労等による過度なストレス、長時間の一定姿勢の保持、過剰なアルコール摂取などがあげられます。しかし、睡眠をとりすぎるのは禁物です。休日の朝などに睡眠をとりすぎると、片頭痛が起こることが多くなります。

食べ物に注意する
特定の食べ物や飲み物をとると頭痛が起こることもあります。たとえば、ワインやチョコレート、チーズ、サラミなどは頭痛を引き起こすことがあります。

あまりにひどい場合は病院へ

片頭痛の場合、頻度が年とともに増えていき、毎日のように痛むようになることがあり、これを変容性片頭痛または慢性連日性頭痛といいます。これには、鎮痛薬の連用でかえって頭痛がひどくなる薬物乱用頭痛も含まれます。市販薬が効かなくなったり服用回数が増えてきたら、ひどくしてしまわないうちに専門医を受診しましょう。医療機関では、血管を収縮させる作用のあるトリプタン系製剤などが処方され、前ぶれか痛みが出始めたときに服用すると効果があります。

まとめ:脈打つように痛む頭痛の原因と対策

片頭痛は女性に多く、こめかみあたりが脈打つようにズキンズキンと痛むのが特徴です。原因と対策をおさらいしておきましょう。

片頭痛を引き起こすきっかけは人それぞれで、生理、ストレス、人ごみ、寝不足や眠りすぎなどが代表的。

応急処置としては、静かな部屋で保冷パックや氷まくらをタオルなどに包み、頭の下に敷くなどして横になり安静を保ちます。

予防方法

  • まぶしい光やうるさい音を避ける
  • 生活習慣改善による治療
  • 食べ物に注意する

この記事を参考にスッキリした毎日を過ごしてくださいね。

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