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ヘルペスと関係する3種類の頭痛のメカニズムと対処のポイント

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ヘルペスが頭痛の原因になることをご存知でしょうか?

頭痛には様々な原因がありますが、ヘルペスもそのひとつです。ヘルペスによる頭痛のメカニズムと治療方法を知ることで適切な対処を行い頭痛の改善に繋げることができます。

なぜなら頭痛はその原因別に適切な対処方法が異なるからです。原因にあった対処を行わなければ頭痛は改善しません。本記事では特にヘルペスが原因で起こる頭痛について学んでいきます。頭痛は一般的に原因がハッキリと分からないことも多い疾患ですが適切な治療を受けるために一緒に学んでいきましょう。

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ヘルペスとは

頭痛の男

ヘルペスという言葉を聞いたことはあるけれども内容がよくわからない方もあるでしょう。

ヘルペスとは普段は神経に隠れているヘルペスウィルスが病気や肉体的ストレスにより増殖し口の周りに水泡が数個かたまって出現し次第に大きくなる単純ヘルペスと、初めにピリピリとした痛みがあり、体の広い範囲に帯状に水泡が出る帯状ヘルペスの2種類のことをさします。

帯状ヘルペスでは皮膚の症状が治まったあとでも数ヶ月にわたって神経痛の症状が続くことがあります(ヘルペス後神経痛)。帯状ヘルペスは全身どこでもなりますが特に目や耳の周りであれば角膜や聴覚、顔面神経に障害が出る場合がありますので専門医に見てもらう必要があります。

ヘルペスと関係する3種類の頭痛のメカニズムと対処のポイント

ヘルペスが原因で起こる頭痛は一つだけではありません。中には危険な症状もありますのでヘルペスが原因の頭痛にはどのような種類があるか症状はどのようなものかを対処法と合わせて見ていきましょう。

①ヘルペス脳炎による頭痛

ヘルペスはウィルスに感染し、あるいは再発してから発疹が現れ通常は自然治癒も期待できる疾患です。ところが極まれにヘルペス脳炎という大変危険の病気にかかる場合があります。ヘルペス脳炎の症状は発熱、嘔吐、痙攣、頭痛、意識障害などで急激に現れます。

症状が進んでいくと幻覚が現れたり、異常行動を起こすこともあります。また昏睡状態になる場合もあります。死亡率も20%以上あると言われ注意が必要です。

ヘルペス脳炎の初期の症状は軽い頭痛であることも多く、大変な病気と思わず見逃しがちです。軽い頭痛の場合でも言葉をうまくしゃべれなかったり、言い間違えたりしたら専門医を受診しましょう。

ヘルペス脳炎と診断されると治療が始まります。抗ウィルス薬を点滴で2週間から3週間投与します。ヘルペスウィルスは日本人のほとんどが保有していると言われているウィルスです。ストレスや疲労で再発をよくするという方は危険な症状もあるということを覚えておきましょう。

②ヘルペスによる片頭痛

片頭痛とは頭の片側がズキンズキンと脈打つように痛み、ある程度定期的に起こるのが特徴の頭痛です。吐き気や嘔吐を伴う場合も多く光や音に敏感になるといった症状が見られることもあります。

片頭痛のメカニズムは頭部の血管が拡張し炎症を起こして頭痛が発症します。頭部の血管が拡張する原因は様々ですが、ヘルペスが関係する場合は頭部の神経がヘルペスウィルスにより刺激を受け、血管周囲に炎症を起こさせる神経伝達物質を分泌し、そのために血管が拡張し片頭痛が起こします。

片頭痛がヘルペスウィルス活性化のサインとなることがあります。例えば顔のどちらか半分にしびれを感じ髪の毛が逆立つような感覚になったりします。その後片頭痛が起こり、発疹が出て片頭痛がひどくなる場合もあります。

片頭痛の原因が何であるかを調べることによって適切な対処が出来ますのでヘルペスになりやすい方は特に注意してみてください。専門医を受診して適切な治療を受けましょう。

③ヘルペスによる後頭神経痛

頭の後ろが重い、物凄く頭が痛い、血管が切れそうな痛みなどを訴えられる場合クモ膜下出血や脳腫瘍などの緊急性の高い病気がないかCTなどで調べるのですが、特に問題ない場合は後頭神経痛である場合があります。

後頭神経痛とはヘルペスウィルスの再発により神経に炎症が起こり強い痛みを感じるものです。神経痛が強い場合は鎮痛薬が効かないこともあり専門医の受診が必要です。神経の興奮を抑える薬を使うこともあります。通常3日~2週間ほどで改善されていきます。

痛みを残さない帯状疱疹 再発させない単純ヘルペス
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まとめ:ヘルペスと関係のある頭痛

ここまで、ヘルペスと関係のある頭痛について見てきました。普段ヘルペスと頭痛がなかなか結びついて来ないものですが、ヘルペスに関係した病気があるということを知るだけでも適切な対処が出来るようになります。最後にもう一度、ヘルペスと関係のある頭痛を確認しておきましょう。

  1. ヘルペス脳炎による頭痛
  2. ヘルペスによる片頭痛
  3. ヘルペスによる後頭神経痛

ヘルペスと関係する頭痛は問題ないものから大変の病気が潜んでいるものまでありました。軽い頭痛であっても他に何か症状が出ていないか観察するようにしましょう。本記事で学んだヘルペスに関係する頭痛の症状が見られる場合はまず専門医に相談してみてください。

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