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陸上トラック,運動,スポーツ
陸上トラック,運動,スポーツ

腰痛予防に効果のある運動であるヨガのメリットとおすすめのポーズ

陸上トラック

腰痛予防には、正しい姿勢や食生活改善などの方法がありますが、その一つに運動があります。運動といっても腰痛予防には、激しい筋トレのような運動ではなく、自分の体力に見合った身体にやさしい運動がいいとされています。腰痛予防に効果のある運動の中には、ヨガが含まれています。

ヨガを普段から行っていない人には、その効果を知らないと取り組みにくいのではないでしょうか。そこで、腰痛予防に効果があると言われているヨガのメリットを紹介します。ヨガを始めるきっかけづくりになるとうれしいです。

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腰痛予防にどのような運動がいいのか?

ヨガ女性

運動不足は腰痛の大きな原因となりますので、腰痛予防には運動がよいとされています。なぜなら、腰を支える筋力が衰えると、骨盤が歪んだり、正しい姿勢が保てなくなったりして、腰に負担をかけてしまうからです。

運動と一口にいっても、筋力トレーニングからスポーツまで様々な種類があります。腰痛予防のための運動の目的は、筋肉を活性化させて鍛えることで、腰全体をしっかり支えられる強い腰を作ることにあります。
ただし、腰痛がひどい時には筋肉を疲労・緊張させる可能性がありますので、運動は避けなければなりません。まずは、ストレッチなどで筋肉を柔らかくして腰痛を取り除き、腰痛予防という目的で日頃から適度な運度をすることがベストです。

ヨガのメリット

ヨガは、ダイエットや美肌に効果があると言われて人気がありますが、腰痛予防にも効果があります。
ヨガには、簡単なものから難しいものまで多くのポーズがありますが、いろいろなポーズを行うことで筋肉を活性化させることができます。

最大のメリットは、身体の内側にある筋肉であるインナーマッスルを効果的に鍛えることができるということです。インナーマッスルは、身体の深い部分にあって、外から刺激を与えることが難しく、意識しないと鍛えられない筋肉です。骨盤を支える大腰筋もインナーマッスルの1つです。慢性的な腰痛の人の多くが、大腰筋が骨盤を支えられず、緊張していると言われています。ヨガのポーズを上手に取り入れると、大腰筋や腰周りの様々な筋肉を鍛えることができ、腰痛予防をすることにつながります。

また、ヨガのポーズをとることで、代謝も促進されて血行がよくなり、腰痛の原因となる冷えも解消できます。代謝促進は老廃物を排出する効果もありますので、腰痛の原因である肥満も予防できます。

ヨガは身体を激しく動かす必要がありませんので、運動が苦手な人にも取り組みやすくおすすめです。最初は自分ができる簡単なポーズからゆっくり行うと効果的です。無理にやると、筋肉を緊張させて腰痛を悪化させてしまう可能性があります。自分のペースで行うことがヨガの基本です。

腰痛予防に効果のあるヨガのポーズ

ヨガ初心者でもできる、腰痛予防に効果的なヨガのポーズを紹介します。自宅でもできますので、空いた時間に行ってみてください。

①トライアングルのポーズ

背中と足の力を鍛えるのに効果的なポーズです。お尻の外側の筋繊維をストレッチしながら、胴体の側面に沿って筋肉を伸ばしましょう。

方法は、まず両足を合わせてまっすぐ立ちます。次に左足を1mくらい後ろへ下げて、足の方向を45度外向きに置きます。胸を側面に向けて、左手は地面、右手は天井に向けて身体を開いてストレッチします。両手はまっすぐに伸ばしましょう。5~10回呼吸をする間ポーズを続けて、終わったら反対側も同じポーズをします。
一連のポーズを数回繰り返します。

②キャット&カウポーズ

腰の筋肉をほぐして、痛みを和らげるのに効果的なポーズです。キャットポーズとカウポーズを繰り返すことで、背骨をニュートラルな位置に戻し、筋肉をほぐして緊張を和らげます。

方法は、まず床に両手と両膝をついて四つん這いになります。次に、ゆっくりと背骨を持ち上げて背中をアーチ型にして、そのまま数秒キープします。これがキャットポーズです。
これが終わったら、ゆっくりと背中をへこませて、肩甲骨を押し上げ、頭を持ち上げます。これがカウポーズです。このキャットポーズとカウポーズを数回繰り返しましょう。

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まとめ:筋力と柔軟性を身につけられるヨガを腰痛予防に取り入れよう

腰痛予防には運動がいいと言われていますが、中でもヨガが効果的です。ヨガを行うメリットはいくつかありますが、最大のメリットは身体の内側にある筋肉であるインナーマッスルを効果的に鍛えることができるということです。腰を支える大腰筋もインナーマッスルですが、意識的に鍛えないとなかなか鍛えられない筋肉です。

ヨガのポーズの中でも、「トライアングルのポーズ」や「キャット&カウポーズ」を取り入れて、腰痛予防をしましょう。

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