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のび、ストレッチ、男、ベッド
のび、ストレッチ、男、ベッド

腰痛対策の正しいストレッチ方法

のび

腰痛解消のためにストレッチを行っている方はたくさんいらっしゃると思いますが、自己流でやられている方も多いのではないでしょうか。ストレッチが腰痛に効果があるのはよく知られていますが、ただむやみやたらにやればいい、というものではありません。自己流のために症状を悪化させることもあります。

ここでは、正しいストレッチとはどういうものか、そして、行う上でどのようなことに注意していけばいいのか、腰痛対策としてのストレッチを行うための手引きをご紹介していきます。

スポンサーリンク

まずは自分の腰痛について知りましょう

腰痛

腰痛のタイプ

腰痛はその痛み方でタイプに分けることが出来ます。腰を前に曲げてみて痛むなら「前屈障害型」と呼ばれるもの、後ろにのけぞってみて痛むなら「後屈障害型」と呼ばれるものになります(どちらかわからない時には、実際に10回ほど曲げてみて、より痛む方が自分のタイプになります)。さらに、それぞれのタイプにお尻や足に痺れや痛みがあるかないかを加えて、全部で4タイプに分けられます。

この中のどれに当たるかで、どう対処するか違ってきます。どのタイプにおいても本来は検査をした方がよいのですが、お尻や足の痺れや痛みがある場合は特に検査が必要です。この症状があるときには、同じ腰痛でも症状が進んでいる時やがんなどの別の病気にかかっている疑いもあります。薬物治療や、場合によっては手術が必要になるときもあります。

前屈障害型

「腰痛」といわれるものの大半はこれにあてはまるといいます。悪い姿勢を続ける、日常生活の中で腰に負担がかかるような動作を続けることで起こりやすいと言われています。長時間パソコンに向き合うビジネスマン、タクシードライバー、主婦や運送業など多種の職業の人がかかっています。

原因としては、背骨を構成する椎骨という骨と骨の間でクッションの役割を果たしている椎間板や、そのまわりを取り巻いて関節を補強している靱帯、その中でも背中にかかわる後縦靱帯、腰と背中を支えている背筋などの組織が何らかの理由で痛んでしまうことがあげられます。ただ、レントゲンなどで調べても原因がわからないことが多いのもこの型の特徴です。

このタイプの場合、腰痛が発症しはじめた時点での前屈みは厳禁です。多少無理して曲げた方がいいという考え方や同様の民間療法もかってありましたが、今ではその原因が明らかになってきたこともあり、症状を悪化させる動作として広く認知されてきています。

後屈障害型

このタイプは、加齢によって脊椎の形がゆがんできたり、激しいスポーツによって腰椎にずれが起きたりといったものが多いといいます。スポーツ選手や高齢者がよくかかると言われています。

前屈型とは逆に後ろにのけぞらないようにします。痛みが和らいできたらストレッチを行うこともありますが、コルセットで固定して腰椎にかかる圧力を分散させるなどの療法もよく用いられます。

正しいストレッチ

ストレッチとは、筋肉や関節をゆっくり伸ばしていく動作の運動のことで、筋肉をリラックスさせ血行をよくする効果があります。腰痛の症状を改善するストレッチは、前述の前屈型と後屈型で違ってきます。それぞれをご紹介しましょう。

前屈障害型向けストレッチ

うつぶせで行うストレッチ

  1. タオルを置き、その上にうつぶせに寝ます。
  2. お腹の下に指をいれて、お腹と背中を同時にへこませる動作をとります。5回から10回程度続けます。

あおむきで自転車こぎ

  1. あおむけになり、腰の部分にタオルを入れます
  2. 空中で自転車をこぐように足を回します。10秒から20秒程度続けます

上体そらし

  1. うつぶせでひじをつきます
  2. お腹を床につけた状態で上半身をそらし、腰を伸ばします。5回から10回程度続けます
  3. 何度か続けてある程度慣れてきたら、腕を伸ばして上半身をそらすようにすます

後屈障害型向けストレッチ

ひざかかえ

  1. 腰に座布団などを挟んであおむけに寝て、両手でひざを抱えます。そのまま10秒数えます
  2. 座布団を外し、両手で片方のひざを抱えます。そのまま10秒数えます

よつんばい
よつんばいになって、お腹を押し出す、背中を引っ込める、この動作を10回程度繰り返します。

スクワット

  1. 背筋を伸ばしてまっすぐ立ちます。両足は肩幅と同じくらいに開きます
  2. 背筋を伸ばしたまま、お尻を地面に向けて落とすような感覚で上半身を沈めます。そのまま10秒数えます
  3. ゆっくりと上半身を伸ばしていきます。これを10回程度続けます

ストレッチを行う上での注意点

ストレッチを1ヶ月続けたが効果がない、痛みが余計ひどくなった、こんな時は即中止して病院に行きましょう。また、それぞれのストレッチの動作は痛くない程度に、ゆっくり、無理のないように行うようにしましょう。無理をして行った場合に逆に症状を悪化させることがありますので、要注意です。

メディカルエンジェルストレッチ「腰」
伊集院 霞
技術評論社
売り上げランキング: 37,694

まとめ:自分の腰痛を確認して正しいストレッチをしましょう

腰痛に効果のあるストレッチを行うためには、まず自分の腰痛正しく認識することが大事です。自己判断で進めず、迷ったら医師に相談してみましょう。正しいストレッチで腰痛の解消・再発防止に努めるようにしましょう。

スポンサーリンク

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