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ビジネスマン、仕事
ビジネスマン、仕事

悪い姿勢が腰痛を引き起こす3つの理由と予防法

悪い姿勢の男

腰痛が起こる原因には様々なものがありますが、腰痛に悩んでいる多くの人が普段の生活による影響が大きいということがわかっています。姿勢を意識して見直すだけでも腰痛を軽くさせることができるのです。

腰は体を支える軸となる部分であるため、どのような姿勢をとるかによって腰へかかる負担も変わってきます。腰への負担を減らすことは腰痛予防となります。

たとえ整体やストレッチを行っていたとしても、腰への負担が多い姿勢を続けていては腰痛が改善することはありません。

そこで、どんな姿勢が腰に負担をかけてしまうのか、どのようなことに気をつけたらいいのかということを説明します。日頃のケアを行うことで予防するだけでなく、悪化を防ぐことにも繋がります。

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腰痛の主な原因は3種類

仕事する男

姿勢によって腰痛に繋がる原因には、主に「筋肉」「骨」「血流」の3種類があります。どれも普段の生活で気をつけていれば負担を軽くすることができます。当てはまるものがある人は、意識して早めにケアを行っていきましょう。

筋肉疲労と筋力低下

デスクワークや車の運転など長時間同じ姿勢をとり続けると、筋肉に乳酸がたまっていき、筋肉疲労となってしまいます。

筋肉疲労となると、その部分にハリがでてきてしまい動きづらくなってしまいます。長時間座っていると腰部分の筋肉が疲労してしまい、動きづらくなってしまうというわけです。

また、肥満や運動不足により筋力が低下してしまうと腰痛に繋がります。特に腹筋よりも背筋が弱いと腰痛に繋がると言われていますので、背筋の筋力低下は要注意です。

骨格の歪み

体を支える軸となる腰は姿勢の影響を受けやすく、そこから骨格が歪み腰痛が起きてしまいます。

いわゆる猫背と言われるような前屈みの姿勢をとりがちだったり、左右どちらかに体重をかけがちだったりすると、腰周りを中心とした骨格が歪んでしまいます。

血流の低下

肥満や運動不足、女性の下着の締めつけなどが原因で血流が低下すると、筋肉にたまった疲労物質が血液と一緒に流れなくなってしまい、先に述べた筋肉疲労がたまりやすくなってしまいます。

姿勢に気をつけると腰痛を軽減できる

以上のように腰痛の主な原因には3種類があります。ではどのように姿勢に気をつけるとこのような腰痛を予防できるのかを説明します。

「背骨はS字」を心がける

背骨というものは、本来横から見るとS字を描いているのが正しい形です。

頭からまっすぐ下に線を下ろすと、まず胸からお腹にかけてが少し前に出ており、腰から尾てい骨にかけてが少し後ろに反っている状態が正しい背骨の形です。壁に背を向けて立ち、頭・肩・尻・踵をつけてみてください。このとき背中と壁の間には隙間がありますよね。これが正しいカーブなのです。

しかし背中を丸めがちな人が多く、その姿勢を続けると骨格や筋肉が正しくない状態になってしまいます。椅子に座るときも同様です。背中をべったり背もたれにつけるのではなく、尾てい骨のみを背もたれにつけるつもりで座ってみてください。

長時間同じ姿勢をとらない

先に述べたように、長時間同じ姿勢でいることは筋肉疲労につながります。

仕事上どうしても長時間同じ姿勢をとることを余儀なくされる場合は、先に述べたS字姿勢を心がけるようにしましょう。正しい姿勢でいると、長時間同じ姿勢でいても体がきつくなりにくいです。また、ストレッチや体操を行って筋肉をほぐすことを心がけましょう。

左右どちらかに偏った姿勢をとらない

立っているときにどちらか片側に体重をかけてしまう、いつも同じ方の肩に荷物をかけてしまうなど、左右どちらかに偏った姿勢をとることは骨格の歪みに繋がります。

立つときはきちんと両足で支え、背筋を伸ばしておきましょう。背筋を伸ばしておくだけでも背筋を使いますので、筋力低下を予防することもできます。また気をつけのような直立よりも、休めのように足を少し開いた状態の方が腰への負担は少なくて済みます。

ラクな姿勢をとらない

ラクな姿勢というのは、骨格を歪ませる原因となります。たとえば足を組む、背中を丸くして椅子に寄りかかるなどです。

このような姿勢を続けると骨格が歪んでしまい、腰痛へと繋がります。足を組む癖のある人は、普段とは違う方の足を組むことを心がけましょう。背中を丸くしてしまう人は、最初から椅子の背もたれに寄りかからないようにして座るようにしましょう。

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あなたの普段の姿勢を見直す

以上、姿勢が腰痛へ与える影響を説明させていただきました。腰痛を予防するために気をつけたいことをまとめると以下の4つとなります。

  • 背骨のS字を心がける
  • 長時間同じ姿勢をとらない
  • 偏った姿勢をとらない
  • ラクな姿勢をとらない

腰への負担が少なくて済むような姿勢を保つには、腹筋背筋ともに必要となります。しかし、特別な筋力が必要というわけではなく、S字を心がけた姿勢をとり続けることで自然とつく筋肉量で十分なのです。正しい姿勢を心がけることは筋トレにもなるのです。

もちろん動けないほどに痛い場合は別ですが、腰痛で悩んでいる多くの人は姿勢を見直すだけで大きく改善されるといわれています。

ストレッチや体操などを積極的に行うこともいいのですが、まずは姿勢を見直して普段の生活で腰痛を予防していきましょう。

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