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痺れを伴う腰痛の原因と症状別の対処法

腰痛の男

腰痛の痛みはとてもつらいものですが、その痛み方はそれぞれです。針で刺すような痛み、内部から響いてくるような痛み、骨を締め付けるような痛み、そしてしびれるような痛み。
今回はこの痺れを伴う腰痛について紹介していきましょう。

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痺れを伴う腰痛とはどんなものか?

ベッド

腰痛に痺れを伴う場合の多くは神経系列に影響があると考えられます。腰回りの痺れなのか足の痺れなのか、どの部分がしびれているかによってもその原因は様々ですが、いずれにしろ神経の働きに支障が出ている状態を放っておくのは大変なことになりかねません。

そこで、痺れを伴う腰痛を病名別に見ながら、症状から考えられる原因を探りその対処方法を見ていきましょう。

腰椎椎間板ヘルニア

症状
最初は腰痛を感じていて、しばらくしてから少しずつ片方の足に痺れが広がっていきます。進行してくると激しい痛みに変わるようになり、太もも・ふくらはぎ・すね・くるぶしから下にかけて電流を流したような痛みが特徴です。特に運動で力が入ったり重いものを持ち上げた時に強い痛みを感じます。

原因
椎間板とは脊椎や腰椎などの骨と骨をつなげるゴムのような組織でクッションの役目をしていますが、この椎間板が外傷や老化現象によって変形したり腫れ上がったりすると周辺の神経を強く刺激することになり、この症状が出てきます。

対処
神経障害が悪化すると筋肉や感覚の機能が麻痺してしまうケースもあります。症状に気付いた時点で整形外科に診察してもらうようにしましょう。

坐骨神経痛

症状
腰痛に伴いお尻から足の広い範囲にかけての痺れを感じる場合は坐骨神経痛と思われます。

原因
原因としては重大な疾患が考えられるケースが多く、ヘルニアや腰回りの骨の変形や腫瘍が疑われる場合もあります。

対処
腰痛と痺れの原因をしっかりと見極めることが大切となります。重大な疾患が原因であるならば尚更少しでも早く専門医に診察してもらう必要があります。整形外科でしっかりと診察してもらいましょう。

脊椎腫瘍

症状
腰痛とともにお尻や足、背中に広がる痛みや痺れを感じる場合は脊椎腫瘍が疑われます。

原因
坐骨神経痛でも挙げましたが、骨が腫瘍になることからこの症状を引き起こします。脊椎腫瘍になることは稀ですが、さらにその原因として他の患部の腫瘍が転移してきている可能性が非常に高く、適切な診察と判断が求められることになります。

対処
可及的に早期治療がとても重要です。整形外科はもちろんのこと、脊椎や脊髄を専門としている医療機関でしっかりと検査してもらいましょう。

腰椎すべり症

症状
腰痛に伴い腰より上への痛みや痺れを感じる場合がほとんどです。立ち仕事も含め長時間同じ姿勢でいるときや、物を運んでいるときなどに傷みが強くなる場合があります。

原因
主に姿勢の悪さや過去のぎっくり腰などによる腰椎のずれを放置しているとそのズレが原因でこの症状を引き起こしてしまいます。生まれつき腰椎形状に異常があって発症する場合と、日常の動作や姿勢が元で発症する場合とがあります。

対処
腰周辺の骨や関節の位置関係を改善する必要がありますので、整形外科で診察してもらいましょう。

腰部脊椎管狭窄症

症状
普段痛みを感じることはあまりなく、歩いていると足腰に徐々にしびれや痛みを感じるようになります。一度休憩すると痛みや痺れが和らぎ、また歩くと症状が出てきます。悪化すると少し歩いただけでも症状を感じるようになり、重症化すると回復が困難になり歩行障害の原因となります。

原因
腰椎内の神経が何らかの障害で圧迫されこのような痛みや痺れが発症します。歩くときに症状が出るのは立って歩く姿勢になることで腰椎や脊椎の神経管が狭くなりさらに圧迫されることが原因です。背筋を伸ばすと神経が圧迫されて痛みが出てしまうので、緩和させるために前かがみで歩く癖がある場合はこの症例が疑われます。

対処
脊椎や腰椎内部の神経管が圧迫されて直接痛みや痺れを感じ始めるので、初期段階で発症に気付きやすい症例ですが、やはり放っておくと大変ですので早期に整形外科で診察してもらうようにしましょう。

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まとめ:痺れを伴う腰痛があるときの3つのポイント

専門医でなければ症状の原因と病名の判断は難しいところです。であれば尚更いち早く専門の診療機関で診察してもらうようにしましょう。
自分の思い込みで症状が悪化してしまうと大変なことになりかねないほど痺れを伴う腰痛は怖いということがお分かりいただけたと思います。
では、最後にもう一度痺れを伴う腰痛があった場合に覚えておきたいポイントをおさらいしておきましょう。

  • 痺れを感じたらなるべく早く診察してもらう
  • 正しい診察を受け悪化させない
  • 決して放っておかない

もし症状があっても早く解消できるように普段から心がけて健康な毎日を送りたいですね。

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