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庭仕事

腰痛は労災になるのか?第三次産業における労働災害の状況

庭仕事

腰痛はケースによって労働災害(労災)として認定されます。最近の労災の傾向として第三次産業における労災の発生が極めて多くなっています。その中で腰痛も労災として認定されるケースが増えています。また厚生労働省も労災の対象として腰痛を理解するようになっています。本稿では腰痛と労災の関係について述べていきます。腰痛と労災の関係についてご参考になれば幸いです。

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第三次産業の労災多発の近況

腰痛の男

労災というとかつては、建設や運輸、製造などを中心としたいわゆる第二次産業において発生することが多い傾向にありました。しかし、厚生労働省における最近の調査によると第三次産業(第一次産業と第二次産業以外のすべての事業・サービス業などが中心です)における労災の発生が極めて多い傾向にあります。

例えば、飲食業などのサービス業では、業務中の転倒などによる怪我が労災の対象となって問題となります。また、切断機を利用する仕事では指の切断などの事故が発生しています。さらに、近時ではデスクワークによる長時間の「座りっぱなし」や介護の仕事における腰のひねりなどによる腰痛の労災事故が大変大きな問題となっています。

また、第三次産業では第二次産業に比較して労災など労働状況に対する問題意識が希薄であるということが問題の根底にあるとも言われます。第二次産業では業界全体で労災事故に取り組んできましたが、第三次産業ではそのような取り組みが遅れていると言われます。

厚生労働省における腰痛予防対策指針

腰痛について、厚生労働省はかつてから、労災予防の対象として認知されていました。既に1994年における厚生労働省発表の「職場における腰痛予防対策指針」において、腰痛が対象とされています。

しかし、高齢化の進展による介護事業の拡大、IT技術の進展によるデスクワークの増加によって腰痛が業務上の災害(業務起因性のある災害)として認定されると同時に、上記の
「職場における腰痛予防対策指針」が平成25年6月18日に改定・発表されました。

これにより腰痛予防の対策が公的に提示されたと同時に、腰痛が業務上発生した場合には
労災として認定される可能性が高くなったということができます。つまり、厚生労働省が示した腰痛予防の基準に違反していた事実があった場合には労災の業務起因性が認められやすくなったということができます。

腰痛における労災請求のすすめ

労災請求の方法については、一般的には会社が判断して請求するという認識があります。しかし、労災は労働に従事している場合に生じた業務起因性がある損害について会社と従業員が折半して支払っていた保険料を基準に会社が請求を代行してくれるものです。

時折、会社において労災の適用を請求することにより労災保険料が高くなるという誤解のもと、労災としての請求をなかなかしてくれない場合があります(いわゆる労災かくし)。とりわけ、腰痛の場合には業務との関連性が一見明白とは言えないので、特に労災として請求することが少ないというケースがあります。

しかし、そもそも労災の請求をしたことで労災保険料が高くなるということは一切ありありません(メリット制という他の制度が適用されなくなりますが、労災保険料が高くなることはありません)。一方で、従業員は会社が労災の請求をしない場合には自ら労災の請求をすることができます(ハローワークや労働基準監督署で相談すれば手続きが可能です)。

その際、なぜ会社が労災請求をしないかを記載する欄がありますので、労災かくしの可能性がある場合の方が会社にとっては、違法を疑われ、かえって助成金の審査などで振りに扱われる可能性があります。また、労使間の関係悪化にもつながります。そのため、腰痛であっても、長時間のデスクワークや介護における無理な体勢等が原因と考えられる場合には、労災の請求をすることがおすすめできます。

なお、労災請求の手続きや腰痛が労災に該当するかどうかについて判断に迷った場合などには社会保険労務士への相談がおすすめです。

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まとめ:腰痛は立派な労災

以上述べましたように、最近では第三次産業における労災事故が著しく増えており、特に腰痛についても、厚生労働省が指針を改訂するなど労災の対象として強く認識されるに至っています。

このような状況の中で、業務上、腰痛が発生した場合には、速やかに労災請求をすることが会社にとっても従業員にとっても双方にメリットがあります。いわゆる労災かくしは。会社にとっても従業員にとっても、全く資するところはありません。労災の請求や判断について不明な点がある場合には社会保険労務士に相談した上で、労災の請求を検討することが重要です。

なお、労災の多さが問題となり、業界全体として労災対策を進めてきた第二次産業に比べて、第三次産業は労災などの労働問題についての意識が遅れているということが第三次産業の労災事故の多発につながっているという分析もあります。腰痛は第三次産業のデスクワークや介護事業などでは十分発生する可能性がある事故ですので、業務に起因する腰痛がある場合には労災請求を検討することが会社・従業員にとって利益となります。

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