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妊娠時の腰痛の対策

妊婦腹部

一般的に腰痛になるのは圧倒的に女性が多いと言われています。その中でも妊娠中の女性はほとんどの方が腰痛を経験すると言われています。

症状の出方や重さは人によって様々ですが、妊娠中に発症した腰痛は産後も続くのが特徴だと言われています。

では、その原因にはどのようなことがあるのでしょうか?また、どのような対策が相応しいのでしょうか?今回は、妊婦さんの腰痛対策について学んでいくことにしましょう。

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妊婦さんの腰痛の原因は?

まずは妊婦さんが発症する腰痛の原因について探っていきましょう。

骨盤が開いていく

妊婦

赤ちゃんがお腹の中で大きくなるにつれて重くなる体重を受け止めるために骨盤は徐々に開き始めます。すると、骨盤周りの腰全体を組織する関節や骨などの位置関係が変わっていきます。

骨盤周りの関節の位置関係が変わると、それらを支えている周りの筋肉や靭帯にも負担がかかります。血管や神経を圧迫すると、その注意信号で痛みを感じるようになります。場合によっては腰痛にとどまらず、下半身全体にしびれや痛みが広がっていくケースもあります。

これらの症状はその人の持つ元々の骨格や体格でかなりの差がありますが、大なり小なりこのような負担がかかることには変わりありません。

分泌されるホルモンの状態が変わる

妊娠すると、産道をある程度拡げなければ出産することができませんので、体が自然にそのように変わっていきます。これは妊娠中に分泌されるホルモンの影響です。

骨盤を拡げ、順調に出産できるようにする為に靭帯を柔らかくするホルモンにリラキシンというものがありますが、妊娠中にはこのホルモンの分泌が非常に多くなり、産道周り以外の股関節や腰椎の筋肉や靭帯にも影響し始めます。これが骨盤を拡げたり体のバランスを変えることになります。

この骨盤の開きが大きくなりすぎると腰痛になりやすいのです。骨盤が開くことで腰回りの関節の位置関係が変わります。すると、腰椎や脊椎、尾てい骨などにも影響が出ます。体のバランスを取りずらい状態になるのです。これも腰痛を発症する原因の一つです。

妊婦さんの腰痛対策方法とは

では、これらの原因を踏まえたうえで、妊婦さんにふさわしい腰痛の対策方法を紹介していきましょう。

ストレッチで腰痛対策

妊娠中でもできるストレッチ方法があります。体を激しく動かすものではありませんので、無理のない程度にゆっくりと行うといいでしょう。

まず、両手足を肩幅ぐらいに広げた四つん這いの姿勢をとります。この状態から、ゆっくりと息を吸いながら腰を丸めて5秒キープします。そうしたら、今度はゆっくりと息を吐きながら腰をそらせます。その状態でまた5秒キープします。

このストレッチは腰回りの筋肉をほぐすことが目的です。妊婦さんには急激な運動や負担のかかる動作はできませんので、このようなゆったりとしたストレッチがお勧めです。また、この方法は筋肉をほぐすだけでなく便秘などへの整腸作用もありますので、無理のない範囲で一度に回数を増やすのではなく、1日の中で少しずつ数回に分けて行うのがいいでしょう。

ただし、妊娠前から運動をあまりしていない人などはこのストレッチが合わない方も中にはいらっしゃいます。体調の変化があるときは、掛かりつけの産婦人科に聞くようにしましょう。

日常生活で腰痛対策

ストレッチも効果的ですが、日常生活の中で些細なことに気を使うだけでも腰痛対策になります。妊婦さんは体の負担が通常の時よりも大きいので、そのことに配慮した日常生活を送ることが大切です。

例として、次のことが挙げられます。
姿勢に気を付ける
特に家事などで前傾姿勢になるのは腰に負担がかかります。なるべく背筋を伸ばした状態でいろんなことができるように工夫してみましょう。どうしても前傾姿勢ならないとできないような場合は、その時間を短くしたりこまめに姿勢を正して休むようにしましょう。

また、座るときはなるべく足を閉じた状態を心がけるようにしましょう。そうすることで、必要以上に骨盤が開くのを防ぐことができます。脚を組まないようにすることも大切です。

寝るときの姿勢も大切です。寝るときに仰向けやうつぶせになると腰に負担がかかりやすくなります。腰に最も負担が少ない寝方は横向きです。体に負担の少ない姿勢を心がけるといいでしょう。

立ったり歩いたりを短時間にする
長時間立ったままでいると体の重さをそのまま同じ位置に受け続けることになります。これだけでも腰痛の原因に直結してしまいます。また、長時間歩くことも骨盤に影響があるのであまりよくありません。こまめに座ったりして楽な姿勢を摂るようにしましょう。

体を冷やさない・温める
骨盤に影響が出始めると、血流が悪くなり筋肉や神経を圧迫したりします。体が冷えると更に血流が悪くなったり筋肉が緊張して、さらに腰痛を発症しやすい状態になってしまいます。

お風呂はしっかりと温まるようにちょっとぬるめのお湯で半身浴をしたり、普段の生活でも足腰を冷やさないようにすることが大切です。

また、普段自分の体重以外の重さも支えていますから、ある程度長時間浴槽に浸かると浮力を体に受け続けることで負担を軽減することができます。しっかり温まってリラックスすることはお母さんにも赤ちゃんにもいいことです。

お風呂に入るときは、バランスを崩しやすいですので決して転んだりしないように十分注意をして入るようにして下さいね。

妊娠中に気を付けておきたいこと

腰痛対策で湿布などを使う妊婦さんがいらっしゃいますが、妊娠中はくするが悪影響を及ぼす可能性があるという事は皆さんよく御存じだと思います。

実は湿布薬も飲み薬や塗り薬と変わらない成分を使っています。剤型という薬の使い方が違うだけで、実際には他の薬と同じというわけです。

妊婦さんがこのような薬を使うのは、産婦人科から処方されたものに限定するのが鉄則です。知らずに湿布を貼り続けて何か変化が起こってしまわないように、このようなことをしっかりと覚えておくようにしましょう。

最新 よくわかる妊娠・出産 (主婦の友生活シリーズ)
主婦の友社 (2012-03-15)
売り上げランキング: 592,238

まとめ:妊婦さんの腰痛対策は日常が大切

妊婦さんが薬を使う事は基本的にはあり得ないことですよね。それ以外の方法で腰痛対策をするとなると、やはり日常生活で改善する方法が最適だという事が言えます。

今回、日常生活でできる腰痛対策の紹介をしてきました。これらのことをしっかりと実践して、母子ともに健康な出産ができるといいですね。

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Check Also

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妊娠中の腰痛でお悩みの妊婦さんへ。原因と対策

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