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腰痛の検査と種類

医者

腰痛というのはよくある症状の一つですが、その原因は様々です。筋肉疲労や骨格異常、内臓からの影響などから起こると言われています。腰痛の原因を確認するためには、病院での検査が必要になります。

腰痛の検査は、主に画像検査と臨床検査があります。それぞれの検査の方法によって、多角的に確認され、診断を受けることになります。腰痛はただでさえつらいのに、痛みを伴いような検査はできるだけしたくないものです。腰痛が気になったら、どんな検査になるのか?その検査内容と種類についてご説明しましょう。

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腰痛の検査を受けるとき

医者

腰痛や下半身の違和感など、あまりにもよくある症状であり、誰もが一度は気になったことはあるのではないでしょうか。年齢を重ねるにつれて、周囲にも腰痛持ちが増えてくると、まるで当たり前のように痛みを放置してしまう人も少なくありません。

腰痛があっても、マッサージや指圧などで済ませてしまい、きちんと病院で検査するのをためらっている人もいるのではないでしょうか。腰痛くらいで病院に行くのもちょっと…とか、腰痛の検査はなんとなく恐い、と思っていたら、日にちばかりが過ぎてしまい、結局悪化してしまう可能性もあるのです。

腰痛を感じたら、まず病院へ

筋肉疲労などの原因がはっきりした腰痛であれば、しばらくしたら回復することもあります。しかし、何をやっても痛みが取れない場合や、度々痛くなる、鈍い痛みが続く、下半身まで違和感があるなどの症状がある腰痛があれば、早目に病院での検査を受けましょう。検査を受けることで、原因がわかれば、自宅での対策もしやすくなります。また、腰痛自体はそれほどではなくても、検査をしたら手術が必要なものだったということもあり得ます。放置して重症になればなるほど、悪化をたどりやすいのが腰痛です。早目の検査で、治療を始めましょう。

腰痛の検査とその種類について

腰痛の検査は大きく2つあり、画像検査と臨床検査になります。画像検査というのは、最新の医療機器などを利用して、腰痛の原因を探るために、骨盤や背骨などを画像で判断するものです。もう一つの臨床検査は、血液検査や尿検査によって現在の症状を医師が確認し、腰痛が起こりやすい原因をさぐるものです。

臨床検査と画像検査について病院で行われる検査の内容を詳しく見ていきましょう。

腰痛の臨床検査で行われること

臨床検査とは、血液や、尿、便、細胞などを細かく調べる「検体検査」と、心電図などを調べる「生理機能検査」があります。一般的な健康診断に必ず含まれる内容の検査です。

腰痛で臨床検査を行うのは、腰痛の原因として内臓疾患からの影響や、感染症などを疑う場合です。また炎症の度合いを血液で確認することもあります。腫瘍による腰痛も血液で確認できます。腰痛とは関係がなさそうに思える検査ですが、実は血液検査はとても大切なのです。

同時に尿検査を行う病院もあります。腰痛の原因の一つに、腎臓疾患による影響があるため、尿検査も必要です。背中全体が痛くなるなどの症状があれば、尿検査を指示されることが多いようです。

腰痛の画像検査で行われること

腰痛の原因追求としては、一般的な検査となるのが画像検査です。椎間板ヘルニアやすべり症などは画像によって診断されます。原因がはっきりすることで、腰痛への治療を始めることができ、また自宅での対処法がはっきりしてきます。

画像検査にも種類があり、一般的には4つの画像検査を利用して診断されることが多いようです。

X線検査(レントゲン)

痛みのある腰の骨や背骨の状態を確認する検査で、身体への負担が少なく検査ができます。すべり症や骨折などを確認します。基本的には立ったままの姿勢で行われますが、痛みの状況などによっては横になったり、腰をそらした姿勢で行うこともあります。

MRI検査

X線検査(レントゲン)の次に多い検査はMRI検査です。これも身体への痛みなどがなく、安心できる検査です。骨だけでなく血管の状態など多岐にわたって確認できる検査です。

CT検査

CT検査とは、身体を輪切りにして断面図を見るような検査です。寝ているだけで検査できるため負担はありません。骨に異常があるかどうかを確認するためには、最も有効な検査だとされています。

脊髄造影検査(ミエログラフィー)

唯一、痛みを伴う画像検査です。腰から造影剤と呼ばれる液体を注入し、痛みなどがある病変部を撮影することで、造影剤がかけている場所などによって圧迫がないか確認することができます。

この検査の負担は個人差が多く、検査によって悪化した例もあり、注意が必要です。また、CT検査と同時に行うCTMと呼ばれる検査もあります。CTMは造影剤注入が必要になりますので、必ず確認を行いましょう。

自分で治せる! 腰痛改善マニュアル
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まとめ

腰痛の検査は、血液検査と画像検査がメインとなります。画像検査のほとんどは痛みもなく行われますが、脊髄造影検査(ミエログラフィー)やCTMには痛みが伴います。痛みを伴う検査が行われる場合もありますが、意志が最適な検査であると判断したものですので、きちんと理解して検査を行いましょう。腰痛は放置するほど悪化することもありますので、早めの受診で治療を始めることをお勧めします。

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