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腹筋の筋トレマシン
腹筋の筋トレマシン

腹筋や背筋を鍛えて腰痛を和らげる方法

腹筋器

腰痛が気になって整形外科に行くと、腹筋や背筋が弱いために腰痛を引き起こしていると言われるケースがあると言います。では、付近や背筋を鍛えるだけで果たして本当に腰痛を和らげたり予防することができるのでしょうか?

今回は、腰痛に対して腹筋や背筋がどのように関わっているのか、また鍛えるとしたらどのようにすればいいのかを紹介していきましょう。

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腰痛と腹筋・背筋の・関係とは

まずは、その関わり合いについて見ていくことにしましょう。

腰痛の原因として

筋トレ

冒頭で述べたとおり、整形外科に行くと腹筋や背筋が弱っていることが腰痛の原因だと言われることがありますが、これは専門科の言うとおり間違いありません。腹筋や背筋が弱ると、上半身のバランスを支えるために下半身に負担がかかります。そのバランスの中心になるのが腰です。

上半身の筋力が衰えると、腕の動きや首の動き、体のひねりなどを一身に支えてくれるのが腰なのでその腰に負担がかかり腰痛になるというのは当然の話なわけです。

症状がひどくなって腰だけでは負担を抱えきれなくなると、下半身全体にも負担がかかるようになり足の痺れや関節の痛みに発展してしまう恐れもあります。

腹筋・背筋を鍛えれば治るのか

単純に腹筋や背筋を鍛えたとしても、決して腰痛は楽になりませんし、予防にもなりません。硬くて頑丈な印肉を鍛えることで、体は頑丈になるもしれませんが、腰の働きに最も重要な筋肉の特徴は柔軟であることが挙げられます。

つまり、腹筋や背筋が弱っているというのは、柔軟性に欠けているという事を言っているわけです。腹筋や背筋は、関節などの組織と連動して直接腰に影響しています。硬い板のような状態の腹筋・背筋が腰についているのと、スプリングのように柔らかい腹筋・背筋が腰についているのと、どちらが腰に負担が少ないかと考えたら、一目瞭然ですね。当然柔らかいスプリングのような腹筋・背筋の方が腰への負担は少ないという事が言えます。

腹筋・背筋をどう鍛えらばいいのか

では、腹筋や背筋をどのように鍛えれば腰痛の改善につながるのか、また他に効果がある鍛え方はあるのかを見ていくことにしましょう。

腹筋・背筋は柔らかく鍛える

先程の原因にもあるように、硬い筋肉をつけてしまうとかえって腰痛につながってしまいます。ですので、筋肉を鍛えるときには柔軟な筋肉に仕上げるようにする工夫が求められます。

しなやかな筋肉を作り上げるには有酸素運動であることと、筋肉を緊張させすぎないことが大切だと言われています。

有酸素運動としての腹筋や背筋は意識して呼吸をしながらすることが大切です。大抵の人が自分で腹筋運動や背筋運動をするときは呼吸を止めてしまいます。そのため、せっかく運動をして鍛えている筋肉に酸素が供給されないことになってしまいます。呼吸を止めることで筋肉が必要以上に緊張してしまうという事も残念なことです。普通の筋肉を鍛えるだけの運動よりも、腰への負担が少ない運動でさらに有酸素運動の方が効果的なのです。

代表的な運動方法で言えば、子供から大人まで誰もが知っているラジオ体操です。ただし、一生懸命やりすぎると逆効果になってしみますので、無理のない程度に体をリラックスさせて体操するのが大切です。

また、水中では浮力が働きますので、体重によって間接にかかる負担を軽減することができます。水泳となると腰を強く使う事になってしまいますので、水中で歩くというのが効果的だと言えるでしょう。常に呼吸を意識しながらできますし、何より水圧を受けながら歩きますので腹筋・背筋ともに鍛えられるだけでなく、全身バランスよく柔らかく鍛えることができるのです。

自宅で腹筋・背筋を鍛えるのであれば、補助器具のようなものを使いながら腰に負担がかかるのを軽減しつつ呼吸を意識して行うとよいでしょう。

腹筋・背筋以外も重要

腹筋や背筋を柔軟に鍛えることで腰への負担が軽くなるのは事実ですが、それだけでは十分とは言えません。すでに腰痛を発症してしまっている場合には腰回りの筋肉も緊張状態にありますし、自分では気づかなくても下半身にも予想以上に負担がかかっているのが実際のところです。

そこで、腹筋・背筋を柔らかくするとともに下半身も柔らかくする必要があります。特にお尻や太ももの筋肉が硬くなっているとこれも腰痛の大きな原因になってしまいますので、これらの筋肉を柔軟にする必要があります。

腹筋や背筋を鍛える運動をする前とした後には、必ず下半身のストレッチをするようにするといいでしょう。このストレッチをする際にも呼吸をしっかりと意識して有酸素運動を心がけることが大切です。

腕や足、腹筋や背筋の筋肉を鍛えることは誰でも考えますが、お尻の筋肉のストレッチは言われないとなかなか気づかないものです。ですが腰痛の最終的な原因には必ずと言っていいほど腰とおしりの筋肉の硬直が見られます。お尻の筋肉を柔らかくすることで、上半身からも下半身からも来る負担を柔軟に緩和することができるようになりますし、何より腰への負担を軽くするために最も効果的な筋肉がお尻の筋肉だという事を忘れないようにしてそれぞれの筋肉を柔らかく鍛え鵜とよいでしょう。

やってはいけない筋トレ (青春新書インテリジェンス)
坂詰 真二
青春出版社
売り上げランキング: 10,958

まとめ:腹筋・背筋で腰痛対策するには注意が必要

やり方次第で腰痛を緩和あるいは予防できますが、逆にかえって負担をかけて悪化してしまう場合もあるという事がお分かりいただけたでしょうか?

筋肉を鍛えるには、柔軟性を鍛えるのが大切だという事、そして腹筋や背筋だけを鍛えるのではなく、下半身の筋肉も柔軟に鍛えることが腰痛解消への近道だという事を意識して体を鍛えるようにしましょう。

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