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腰がいたむその原因は?腰痛の場所から原因を考える

腰痛に悩む男

腰痛はその種類ごとに痛みが生じる場所などが異なります。腰痛は慢性のものや急性のもののほか、内臓疾患などでも痛みが生じます。痛みが生じる場所ごとに様々な原因を考えることが大切といえます。

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様々な腰痛の種類と腰痛の場所

腰痛の男

腰痛は日本人の4割程度が持っていると言われ、非常に多くの方が腰痛には悩まされています。一般に腰痛といった場合には慢性腰痛を指します。長いあいだの腰の筋肉のかたまり、強張りから生じる腰痛です。

また腰痛には、急性腰痛、いわゆるぎっくり腰と呼ばれるものもあります。さらに、内蔵に悪いところがある場合に腰痛が生じることもあります。このように腰痛の種類は様々です。

腰痛は原因によって痛みの程度やその痛みが生じる場所も異なってきます。どのようなタイプの腰痛がどのような場所に痛みを感じるようになるのでしょうか。

慢性腰痛の場合に痛みが生じる場所

慢性腰痛の場合、その原因は先に述べましたように筋肉が硬くなってしまうことによって生じます。慢性腰痛の場合、痛みが生じる場所は、主として腰椎からお尻にかけてとなります。わかりやすい表現を取るならば、おおむね胃の後ろ側からお尻にかけての痛みということになります。慢性腰痛の場合、痛みを感じる場所は非常に広くなります。これは筋肉が硬くなる場所が広く腰全体にわたるためです。

慢性腰痛の場合には、日頃からこまめに立ち上がって運動をして腰の筋肉がこわばらないようにしたり、腰痛体操をすることなどが効果的です。慢性腰痛の場合には、その完全な解消を目指すというよりも、こまめに運動をすることなどを通して腰痛と付き合っていくという姿勢が大切ということができます。

このようにして慢性腰痛の場合、痛みが生じる場所は腰全体に及ぶことが特徴的です。

急性腰痛(ぎっくり腰)の場合に痛みが生じる場所

次に、急性腰痛、いわゆるぎっくり腰の場合には、痛みを感じる場所は明白です。激痛が生じる場所がそのまま患部となります。急性腰痛の場合に痛む場所をより厳密に言うと、大腰筋という深層筋が痛みを生じる場所となります。ぎっくり腰のメカニズムとしては、深層筋が動かずに、表層筋だけが動くことから表層筋が捻挫をした状態となります。その結果、炎症が起こり非常に強い腰痛が患部となった場所に生じることとなります。

急性腰痛の場合には、接骨院・鍼灸院などで治療を受けて1週間ほどが経てばほぼ回復します。急性腰痛の場合には、患部をいたわり、接骨医や鍼灸院で施術を受けることが何より効果的です。

内臓疾患の場合の腰痛の場所

内蔵に疾患がある場合にも腰痛が生じることがあります。例えば、膵炎(すいえん)の場合にも腰痛が生じることがあります。膵臓は、みぞおちとおへその間にある臓器でこの臓器に異常が出るとその痛みは腰まで及びます。

もちろん、痛みを感じる場所は腰だけではなく、胃痛なども伴うことになります。このように内蔵に異常がある場合にも腰痛が生じることがあります。内蔵疾患による腰痛の場合には急性腰痛とは異なり、接骨院などだけではその原因が正確には特定されないことがあります。

胃の痛みなどの症状とともに腰部も痛くなる、つまり上半身の広い場所に痛みを感じる場合には病院での診断を受けることが大切です。

椎間板ヘルニアの場合の場所・様々な場所で発症する可能性

急性腰痛(ぎっくり腰)と並んで腰痛として有名なものが椎間板ヘルニアです。椎間板ヘルニアの場合、もっとも症状が生じやすい場所は当然腰ということになります。

椎間板ヘルニアが腰という場所で発症しやすい理由は、腰の周りの椎間板は上半身というもっとも重い部分を支えているので、負担が非常に大きいためです。腰が椎間板ヘルニアが生じる場所としてはもっとも多く、そのため、椎間板ヘルニアは腰痛の代表例として挙げられることが多い面があります。

しかし、実は椎間板ヘルニアは体の様々な場所で生じる可能性があります。例えば、腰以外でも、首、横隔膜、脳などの場所でも椎間板ヘルニアは生じる可能性があります。(もっとも脳の椎間板ヘルニアは命に関わります)

このため、椎間板ヘルニアは腰痛独自の症状とは言えませんが、もっとも腰に生じる可能性が高く、痛みも慢性化するため、あわせてご紹介しました。腰痛がある場合には慢性腰痛だけではなく椎間板ヘルニアの可能性も考えることが必要です。

まとめ:腰痛と発症する場所に関するポイントのまとめ

以上、本文で述べました腰痛と痛みが発生する場所に関してのポイントをまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • 慢性腰痛の場合には、イメージとしてはお腹の後ろからお尻にかけての非常に広い範囲の場所が痛みます。これは慢性腰痛の場合には、筋肉のこわばりが非常に広い範囲に及ぶためです
  • 急性腰痛(ぎっくり腰)の場合、痛みを感じる場所は患部です。急性腰痛の場合には、接骨院などで施術を受けてしっかりと休むことが効果的です
  • 内臓疾患の場合にも腰痛を感じることがあります。内臓疾患が原因の腰痛は接骨院等ではなく病院での治療が必要です。また椎間板ヘルニアも腰という場所でもっとも発症しやすく、腰の痛みを感じたら椎間板ヘルニアの可能性も考慮することがポイントです

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