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子供
子供

治療は必要ないっていうけど、何とかしたい!夜驚症の悩み解決法

子供

ぎゃー!と飛び起きて泣き叫ぶ子供、、。それが毎晩続いたら、親の方が泣きたくなりますよね。夜驚症は2、3歳以後に現れることが多く、通常は思春期までには自然に消失します。いわゆる”寝ぼけ”と同じようなもので、入眠後だいたい2時間以内に突然、出現します。深夜や早朝に起こることはほとんどありません。しかし、毎晩夜驚症を繰り返す子供も多く、親の負担は相当なものです。

子供の医学の本には、自然に治るので治療は必要ないと書いてある事がほとんどですが、藁にもすがりたい親はいるのではないでしょうか?今回は、夜驚症を早く治す為の治療方法を探してみましょう。

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夜驚症の原因

こいのぼり

夜驚症がどうして起こるのかということは、実ははっきりと分かっていません。疲れが溜まっていたり、睡眠不足が引き金になることがあるとも言われますし、緊張や不安が原因となっているのではないかという説もあります。また、稀なケースですが、てんかんの症状として夜驚症が現れているケースもあるので、注意が必要です。

男の子の方が多く発症しますが、子どもの15%ほどが経験します。小学校高学年以降では稀になります。また、この障害には遺伝性があるという見方もあります。

周囲の人が注意すべき点は、子どもがこのような発作を起こした際に部屋を飛び出して階段から転落したり、窓やベランダから飛び出したりしないよう気を配ることです。発作中には、叩いたり、叱ったり、無理やり起こしたりしないことが重要です。多くの場合、特別な治療は不要ですが、思春期を過ぎても発作が起こるような場合には、抗不安薬や、睡眠導入薬を用いた治療が必要かもしれません。

夜驚症の投薬療法

抗不安薬

よく「軽い安定剤」と呼ばれているものはこの分類の薬を指していると考えてよいでしょう。抗不安薬は,文字どおり不安を和らげる薬です。不安・緊張といったこころの変化や,緊張にともなう筋肉のこわばりを緩めてくれます。

睡眠薬と同じく,とてもいろいろなタイプの抗不安薬があって,作用時間や強さ,効き目の特徴,それから場合によっては一緒に飲む他の薬との相性などによって細かく使い分けられます。たとえば,こころをぐっと落ち着かせたいときに使う薬と,筋肉が緊張しすぎて頭痛がしたりするときに使う薬は違ってくる,という感じです。

抗不安薬はうまく使うと心身ともにリラックスできる効果がありますが,効き過ぎると必要以上に眠気が目立ってしまって肝心なときに集中できなかったり,筋肉の力が緩みすぎてしまって転びやすくなってしまったり,という副作用が出ることもあり,使う量やタイミングには注意が必要です。

睡眠導入薬

睡眠薬よりも弱い効き目の薬で、子供の睡眠障害に使われるのは少量のベンゾジアゼピン系薬剤が多いでしょう。夜驚症の特徴は寝始めてから2時間位をめどに発症するという事です。この時間帯のみぐっすり寝てくれればいいので、短時間睡眠用の薬で充分でしょう。

大人が服用した場合、長期間続い続けると依存症になりやすく、効き目も少しづつ薄れてくるので、量を増やしたり、種類を多くして服用したりする場合があります。危険なので、医師の処方を守り、自己判断は絶対にやめましょう。

桂枝加竜骨牡蛎湯エキス

頭痛、のぼせ、耳鳴り、へそのあたりに動悸を感じるなどの症状があるものに用いる漢方薬です。 通常、神経症、小児夜尿症、インポテンツ、脱毛症などの治療に用いられます。子供の場合、あまり副作用がない方が良いので、薬より漢方治療を選ぶ親も多いです。いきなり睡眠薬を与えるのに躊躇されるなら、まず漢方薬を試してみても良いでしょう。

投薬治療のタイミング

医者に相談するタイミングは、回数が多くて、お母さんや家族の方が疲れた時です。大体の夜驚症は、2~6歳でみられやすく、毎日あっても一晩に 1 回だけのことが多く、5分位でおさまります。

この年齢では眠る時間も8時か9時ごろがベストですから、夜驚は10時から11時ごろのお母さんがまだ起きている時間に起こります。毎晩あっても1回だけなら、家族の方も睡眠不足になることはありませんし、少し様子を見ていてもよいと思います。多くの夜驚症の経過をみると、最初が比較的多くても、2~3ヶ月で回数が減ってきます。

しかし、一晩に2~3 回も夜驚があって、1回が10分以上もかかるときは、家族のみんなが睡眠不足になってしまいます。もし、回数が多くて、睡眠不足がひどいようなら、お医者さんに相談してみて下さいお薬で軽くしたり、止めたりすることができます。

治療の注意点

子供を叱らない

夜驚症は、眠りに入ってから、最初の浅くなる時間帯に起きます。昼寝でも永い眠りのときはおきます。夜驚症で興奮している時に起こそうとしてもなかなかおきようとせず、そのまま眠りに入ってしまい、その後起きたときに本人は覚えていません。翌日、本人に自覚させようと、前夜のことについて「話し合い」をすることは、かえってストレスになり、本人の自己評価を低下させかねません。

本人は覚えていないのですから、見守るだけで厳しく叱ったりする事は絶対にやめましょう。 夜驚症の治療にはまわりの優しい配慮が必要です。

他の薬と併用しない

タミフルはインフルエンザにとても有効な薬ですが、睡眠障害の要因がある人がタミフルを飲むと、夢遊病になったりする可能性があるといわれています。はっきりした臨床試験の報告ではなく、信憑性があるとは言い切れませんが、タミフルを飲んだ後に異常行動を起こした症例は無数に存在するのも事実です。そして夜驚症の症状が悪化した、夜驚症を発祥したという症例があるのも事実です。

もし、インフルエンザにかかっても、このような事実を考えると、よっぽどのことがない限りタミフルを使用するのは控えた方が良いかもしれません。

赤ちゃんにもママにも優しい安眠ガイド
清水悦子
かんき出版
売り上げランキング: 364

まとめ

いかがですか。夜驚症はほとんどが自然治癒すると言われています。まわりの温かい配慮が必要です。しかしどうしても症状が重い場合は、病院を受診して、本人の合わせて投薬治療をしても良いでしょう。

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