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寝る
寝る

多相性睡眠を取り入れて睡眠時間を短縮するためのコツ

寝る

 

イタリアのルネッサンス期に活躍したレオナルド・ダ・ヴィンチは、4時間ごとに15分ずつ寝ていました。1日を6分割して合計1時間半の睡眠スケジュールで生活していたのです。これを現代人の睡眠にも取り入れようとする研究があります。忙しい毎日、少しでも時間が増えると嬉しいですよね。しかしやみくもに睡眠を減らすのも不安です。

こちらでは、多層性睡眠を取り入れて睡眠時間を短縮するためのコツをご紹介します。

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多相性睡眠

多相性睡眠とは

寝る

生まれて間もない新生児は、一日中寝たり起きたりを繰り返します。これを「多相性睡眠」と言います。その後成長とともに起きている時間が増え、夜眠って昼は起きるという二相性睡眠になって行きます。そして14~15歳ぐらいで1日8時間程度の睡眠をとるリズムが完成します。これを「単相性睡眠」と言います。さらに年を重ねて老年期になると、次第に二相性睡眠が崩れ始め、少し眠って少し起きるという多相性睡眠に戻っていくのです。

睡眠時間を短縮できる?

近年の社会生活の多様化を反映して、睡眠研究者の間では多相性睡眠に対する関心が高まってきました。多相性睡眠にすれば、一日の睡眠時間を大幅に短縮することが可能です。ダ・ヴィンチは極端なショートスリーパーですが、いろいろな条件で検査してみると、人間の多相性睡眠に対する適応力は高く、単相性よりも多相性のほうがメリットが大きいとする研究者もいます。

研究結果
睡眠時間を1日8時間と決めておき、半分の4時間を夜間にまとめて眠る「主睡眠」、残り4時間を「副睡眠」として、副睡眠の配分によって作業能率や大脳活動がどのように変化するかを調べた実験があります。その結果、総合成績が1番よかったのは、副睡眠を20分ずつ12回に分けてとる方法でした。しかし1日に13回も寝起きするのは、実生活向きではありませんね。

徹夜の時に活用できる

徹夜での仕事というのは効率も低下しており、単純なミスも多くなるためやらない方がいいです。とはいっても、トラブル対応などの理由でどうしてもやむを得ない場合があります。そんな時に活用してみてはどうでしょう。多相性睡眠は軍隊など長時間の連続行動が必要な組織で研究され、実際に活用されているようです。具体的には4時間おきに30分ずつ眠ればOKだそう。ただし、限度は約2週間。それ以上多相性睡眠の状態で生活すると体に支障がでる可能性もあります。

睡眠時間を短縮するためのコツ

以下のことを心がけると、睡眠時間を短縮することができそうです。

睡眠時間の減らし方

体への負担や精神的ストレスを最小限に抑えるため、睡眠時間は一気に減らすのではなく、30分単位で減らしていくのがポイントだそう。30分減らした生活を2週間程度続け、体が十分慣れたらさらに30分短くし、自分の目標まで無理のないように進めていく。また、時間を減らす際には、起床時間は変えず、就寝時間を遅くすることによって調節するのが体のリズムを乱しにくいと考えられます。

入眠までの過ごし方

短眠を実現する上では、寝つきをよくし、深いノンレム睡眠を得ることが重要です。人間は、体温が一気に上がり、その後、急激に下がると自然と眠気をもよおしてきます。つまり、食事や運動などで寝る前に体温を一時的に上げてやることが重要となります。就寝の3~4時間前までに少なめの夕食をとり、その後は、少し暗めの白熱灯の下で過ごすと良いでしょう。

たんぱく質をとる

たんぱく質は短時間で効率よく体温をあげることができます。4時間前にたんぱく質を摂ると、体温が一時的に上がり、寝る前には適温に下がるので、すぐに深いノンレム状態へと入りやすくなります。特に豚肉、鶏肉、卵、牛乳などがおススメです。

入浴

就寝2時間前に入浴すると良いでしょう。時間の目安としては、40度のお湯では、10分程度で良く、38度のぬるめのお湯では、30分ほどゆっくりつかるのが効果的であると考えられる。

NeuroOnを使ってみる

NeuroOnという安眠マスクがアメリカで開発されています。世界初の多相睡眠コントロールシステムによって多相睡眠のサイクルを可能にし、30分睡眠を1日4回行うだけでパワフルに1日中動くことができる効率的な睡眠をもたらしてくれます。これは神経センサを内蔵した安眠マスクで、使用者が深いREM睡眠に入ったことを感知し、十分に休息して活力が回復したら徐々に起こすというもの。また、スマートフォンのアプリと連携してさまざまな設定を行うことができます。興味のある方は試してみてはいかが?

勉強と仕事の能率をグングン上げる分割睡眠法
斉藤 英治
PHP研究所
売り上げランキング: 953,481

まとめ:多層性睡眠で睡眠時間を短縮する

多層性睡眠とは一日の睡眠を分割してとるというものです。30分睡眠を1日4回行うだけでよいので睡眠時間を短縮できると評判になっています。しかし、睡眠時間を短縮するにはコツが要ります。おさらいしておきましょう。

  • 起床時刻は変えず、就寝時刻を2週間ごとに30分ずつ遅くする
  • 就寝の3~4時間前までに、少なめの夕食をとる
  • 夕食後は、少し暗めの白熱灯の下で過ごす
  • 食事と入浴で体温を上げておく

この記事を参考に、挑戦してみてください。ただし、無理のないようにしましょう。

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