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赤ちゃん
赤ちゃん

お腹の赤ちゃんはどうしてる?胎児の睡眠メカニズムと睡眠時間

カップル

 

お腹の赤ちゃん、今日は良く動くなあ。とか全然動かないんだけど何してる?など、産院でエコーで見てもらわないと見えないお腹の赤ちゃん。実際睡眠時間とか、胎児にもリズムがあるのです。

こちらでは、胎児の睡眠時間、加えて重要なママの睡眠についてご紹介します。

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胎児の睡眠

赤ちゃん

おなかの赤ちゃんの動きを胎動として感じられるようになると、赤ちゃんが動くと「あ、起きた!」とか、静かにしている時間が長いと「寝ているのかな?」とか、想像するお母さんも多いようです。実際のところ、お母さんがはっきりと感じられる胎動と連動して、起きたり寝たりしているわけではありませんが、おなかの赤ちゃんが寝たり起きたりしているのは本当のことです。

眼球の動き

赤ちゃんの眼球の運動を調べる研究によりそれが明らかになりました。赤ちゃんの眼球は、妊娠14週くらいから動くようになりますが、このころはまだ、散発的で不規則なものです。それが妊娠20週以降になると、かなりひんぱんに動くようになります。これが、睡眠のとても未熟な段階と考えられています。さらに30週ころになると、眼球が動いている時間と動いていない時間がはっきりするようになります。これは睡眠と覚醒のリズムができてきたことをあらわす変化です。そして、同じ状態が持続する時間がだんだん長くなり、その状態が変わるときに、目をパチパチさせたり、口をくちゅくちゅ動かしたりという赤ちゃんの動きがあらわれることもわかってきました。

生まれたばかりの赤ちゃんは、ノンレム睡眠のときにかぎって口をくちゅくちゅ動かしますが、それと同じような動きが、妊娠35週ころの赤ちゃんにはあらわれてくるのです。新生児と同じような睡眠のリズムが、できつつあるということです。

睡眠周期

一般的な胎児の睡眠周期は20分寝て20分起きるというものなんだそうです。NSTの検査で20分程度時間をかけてモニターをとるのは胎児の睡眠中と活動中の違いを見るためだそうです。胎児は、妊娠21週ころに、睡眠パターンを発達させ、妊娠30週ころには、睡眠周期が40分サイクルになり、覚醒期を示すようになります。ときには最大75分ほど寝ていることもあります。睡眠においては、ノンレム睡眠を増加させます。30週を過ぎると眼球の運動に動いている時間と動いていない時間が出来て、これが睡眠サイクルがしっかりしてきたという証明になるようです。

胎児は何してる?

胎動について

経産婦さんで妊娠19週、初産婦さんでも妊娠20週頃になると下腹あたりでポコポコと赤ちゃんの動きを感じるようになります。これが胎動です。以前はこの胎動が胎児の生存兆候として非常に重要なものであるとされてきましたが、最近は超音波検査が発達してきたために胎児の行動パターンまで詳しく調べられるようになりました。

胎児は妊娠後半になると行動パターンを確立して1時間に約30回の大きな運動を行いその70~80%をお母さんは胎動として感じます。胎動の種類は、手足や体全体を動かす・呼吸運動・しゃっくりなどがあり、単発の動きや規則的な痙攣に似た動きなどがあります。妊娠37週以降は胎児が骨盤内に下がって入り始めると、胎動が減少することもありますが、胎児にとって危険はありません。

胎児が動かない

妊娠20週以前の方は、常時胎動を感じなくても心配ないと思います。あせらず赤ちゃんの発育を待ちましょう。妊娠20週以降で、突然胎動を感じなくなったときには、あせらず安静にして胎動を感じるまで待ってみましょう。赤ちゃんが熟睡しているだけかもしれません。また子宮が収縮していると胎動を感じにくくなることもあります。

半日以上胎動を感じなくなったときには、胎児の状況だけでなく子宮収縮の可能性もあるため一度主治医に診察を受けてください。分娩予定日が近づくと、胎児は骨盤の中へ降りてくるため、大きな動きが減少することがあります。

赤ちゃん痙攣してる?

赤ちゃんが痙攣しているように感じるときは、しゃっくりをしている場合が多いようです。呼吸運動の一部と考えてください。胎児は規則正しい運動をつかさどる小脳などの発育が不十分なため、手足を痙攣様に動かす場合も多くあります。

まとめ:胎児の睡眠のメカニズム

胎児の睡眠についていろんなことが研究により明らかになってきました。ここでおさらいしておきましょう。

胎児の睡眠周期

  • 一般的:20分寝て20分起きる
  • 妊娠30週ころ:40分サイクルになる
  • 最大75分ほど寝ていることも
  • ママに分かる胎動:1時間に約20回程度
  • 20週以降で半日胎動がないと注意

もし胎動を感じないということがあっても、あせらず安静にして胎動を感じるまで待ってみましょう。赤ちゃんが熟睡しているだけかもしれませんよ。

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