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子供、幼児
子供、幼児

3歳児の平均的な睡眠時間と睡眠に関するトラブル

子供

子供は、3歳児の頃は、睡眠時間中に様々な異常的な行動を起こすことがあります。ほとんどの異常的な行動は結果的に心配することはないものが多いということができます。ただ、ごくまれに睡眠時間中の行動から自閉症が発覚するようなこともあります。ここでは、3歳児の平均的な睡眠時間や睡眠時間中の異常的行動をいくつかまとめています。

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3歳児の平均的な睡眠時間と睡眠にまつわるトラブル

子供

3歳児の睡眠時間は、まだまだ「寝る子は育つ」の段階です。3歳児の場合、一般的には平均して12時間から14時間程度は睡眠時間をとらせてあげたいものです。
どんなに短くとも10時間程度の睡眠時間は必要でしょう。3歳児はまだまだ1日の半分は
眠らせてあげたいものです。

しかし、その一方で3歳児の頃となると、自我意識がめばえ、外界から様々な情報による影響を受けます。例えば、怖いテレビを見てしまえば3歳児の脳裏にはその怖い印象が強く残るでしょう。また、膀胱の発達も十分でないことからいわゆるおねしょもまだ続く時期です。3歳児は睡眠時間中にトラブル・問題が生じやすいということができます。

3歳児ころの睡眠時間中のトラブル等としては具体的には以下のようなものがあるといえます。

睡眠時遊行症

いわゆる夢遊病です。3歳児は既に自由に歩き回ることができますが、深夜の睡眠時間に3歳児の子が歩き回って驚いてしまうことがありえます。3歳よりも、もっと小さい乳幼児でも夢遊病的症状ありますが3歳児くらいになると、増える傾向にあります。

睡眠時遊行症の間、3歳児の子は完全に「睡眠時間の中」にいます。つまり、声をかけるなどしても返事はしません。起こそうとしても起きない(あるいはしばらくは寝ぼけている)のが通常です。

3歳児の睡眠中における睡眠時遊行症の原因ははっきりとはしてしませんが、疲労時・不安時などに起こりやすいと言われます。また、女児よりも男児の方が睡眠時遊行症になりやすいと言えます。

睡眠時間中に3歳児の子が歩き出してしまえば、親としてはたいへん驚いてしまいますが、多くの場合、脳波に異常などはなく成長に伴い自然に治癒します。ただ、歩行中に怪我などをしないように足元煮物を置かないなどの配慮をしてあげることは大切です。

夜尿症

いわゆるおねしょです。3歳児ではまだ膀胱の成長が未発達であり、尿を睡眠時間中にとどめておくことがなかなかできません。ましてや入眠前に水分を摂っている場合、特に睡眠時間中おねしょをしてしまう可能性は高くなります。

おねしょについて心配される親御さんもおられますが、3歳児くらいではまだまだおねしょをするのは仕方がないことであり、ある意味当然のことといっても過言ではありません。
おねしょのくせが治らずに心配しなくてはならないのは、中学生程度からです(小学校入学後もついおねしょをしてしまうことは十分あります)。3歳児の頃のおねしょはまだ何も心配することはないと言えます。

ただ、出来るのであれば、睡眠時間前のトイレ、寝る前にはあまりジュースや水を飲まないこと(ただ子供は代謝が良いので極端な水分補給の制限はよくありません)などを指導してあげることが良いといえます。

ごくまれに睡眠障害が自閉症のあらわれであることも

3歳児の睡眠時間中の異常的な行動はほとんどの場合には心配には及ばないことが多いと言えます。しかし、ごくまれに睡眠時間中の異常行動が自閉症の症状の表れであることがありえます。

自閉症の子の場合には、睡眠時間が安定しない場合があります。早朝に目が覚めて日中に昼寝をするというようなことがあります。また、寝つきが非常に悪いということもあります。睡眠時間中に異常的な行動があってもすぐに自閉症かといえばそのようなことは全くありません。

ただ、他の症状(多動的・感覚異常=例えば異常音もないのに耳を塞ぐなど。音が大脳に正確に伝わらないために通常では取らない行動をとります)と総合して睡眠時間の異常が自閉症を示すこともありえます。

可能性として睡眠異常から自閉症が疑われる場合には小児科医などを通して専門医を紹介してもらうなどの対処をとることが良いと言えます。

まとめ:3歳児の睡眠障害についてのまとめ

以上、本文で述べました3歳児の睡眠時間中の異常行動・トラブルについてのポイントをまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • 睡眠時遊行症-3歳児の頃になると自由に歩くことが出来るので、夢遊病の症状として睡眠時間中に歩き回ることがあります。疲れているとき、不安を持っている時などに起きやすい症状と言われます。多くの場合、症状は成長とともに落ち着きますので、あまり心配する必要はありません。ただ、怪我などをしないように配慮してあげることは必要です
  • 夜尿症-いわゆるおねしょです。3歳児程度であれば睡眠時間中におねしょをしてもそれは通常のことです。おねしょが治らないのではないかなどと心配する必要はまだまだ不要です
  • ごくまれに睡眠時間中の異常行動が自閉症の症状の表れであることがあります。多動症・異常感覚などの症状と総合し、自閉症が疑われる場合には早いうちに専門医の指導を受けることが必要です

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