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市販の睡眠薬の効果と副作用、注意点について

夜景

「眠れない夜が続いていて睡眠薬を利用してみたいんだけど市販のものって安全なのかな?」「医師から処方される睡眠薬と市販の睡眠薬でどう違うのかな?」あなたはこのような疑問をお持ちではないでしょうか?

睡眠薬には「睡眠改善薬」と「睡眠導入剤」の2種類があります。それぞれに効果と副作用が異なります。あなたが睡眠薬を利用する場合、それぞれの効果と副作用について理解しておくことが、問題を発生させずに効果的に利用するために欠かせません。

本記事では、市販の睡眠薬の効果と副作用についてご紹介していきます。是非本記事をご活用頂き、睡眠薬の正しい使い方に関する知識を学び、快適な夜の時間を手に入れて下さい。

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1.市販の睡眠導入剤の効果・副作用

睡眠薬は、次の2種類に分類することができます。。

  • 「睡眠改善薬」:市販で販売されている睡眠薬の多くがこのタイプ
  • 「睡眠導入剤」:睡眠治療の医師からよく処方されるタイプ

睡眠改善薬と睡眠導入剤では、それぞれ効果出る仕組みや生じる副作用が異なります。
以下で、それぞれについて詳しく見ていきましょう。

1−1.睡眠薬の種類その1:「睡眠改善薬」

睡眠改善薬とは、抗ヒスタミン薬の副作用である催眠作用を利用した、眠りやすくするための薬 です。

市販されている睡眠改善薬には、次のようなものがあります。

  • ドリエル
  • プロリズム
  • ドリーネン
  • ネオでぃ

「睡眠改善薬」は、抗ヒスタミン薬の催眠作用を利用して眠気を促す効果はありますが、深い睡眠にあなたを導いてくれる効果はありません。

つまり、眠りにつくことはできますが、そもそもの眠れなくなってしまった要因を解消しない限り、質の高い睡眠をとり心身を十分に回復させることはできないということです。

そのため、睡眠改善薬の利用方法としては、 長期的及び継続的利用ではなく、 どうしても眠れない夜などに緊急的に利用するなど、一時的な利用に留めることをお勧めします。

また、睡眠改善薬に含まれる抗ヒスタミン薬については、風邪薬等にも含まれるものですので、正しい利用方法を守る限りは、医師が処方する睡眠薬と比べ強い副作用が出ることは少ないです。

しかし、長期的服用を考慮した薬ではないことと、睡眠の質自体が浅い眠りになりがちなことから、以下のような副作用を感じることがありますのでご注意下さい。

  • 急なイライラ
  • 昼間の眠気
  • 多夢
  • 起床時の頭痛

睡眠改善薬を飲んだ次の日は、急な眠気がくる場合もありますので、車の運転などは可能な限り控えるようにした方が良いでしょう。

また、 抗ヒスタミン薬の 作用増強 の恐れがあるため、睡眠改善薬を利用する際は、抗ヒスタミン薬を含んでいる下記の薬を同時期に服用しないように気をつけて下さい。

  • 風邪薬
  • 鼻炎薬
  • 乗り物酔い薬
  • アレルギー用薬
  • 解熱鎮痛薬

ここまでで「睡眠改善薬」の効果と副作用について見てきました。市販の睡眠薬を利用する際は、一時的な不眠症の利用に留めることが大切です。

継続的な不眠症の症状を感じる場合は、根本的な原因を解消することが大切です。
まずは睡眠の質を上げるための工夫をしていき、それでも解消されなければ睡眠治療を行うことの出来る医師にかかることをお勧めします。

1−2. 睡眠薬の種類その2:「睡眠導入剤」

睡眠導入剤は、現在ベンゾジアゼピン系睡眠薬という種類が主流です。
ベンゾジアゼピン系睡眠薬は、従来の睡眠薬に比べて副作用を軽くすることに成功した酸い未にゃくです。

ベンゾジアゼピン系睡眠薬は、次のものが代表的なものです。

  • ハルシオン
  • レンドルミン
  • マイスリー

ベンゾジアゼピン系睡眠薬は、GABAという脳内の神経物質を増強することで、深い眠りへと導きます。

GABAは、脳内の抑制系の神経伝達物質で、抗不安作用と催眠作用を持っています。ベンゾジアゼピン系睡眠薬では、特にこの催眠作用を増強し、深い眠りへと導きます。GABAの作用が強くなることで、脳の活動がゆっくりとなっていき、日頃のストレスから解放され、少しずつ眠気がおこり、深い睡眠に至るのです。

しかし、ベンゾジアゼピン系睡眠薬においても、あなたが眠れなくなった根本的な原因を解消することはできません。また、長期の利用は依存性などの副作用が強く出る可能性があるため、おすすめすることはできません。

睡眠導入剤を利用する際も、あなたが睡眠の質を上げるまでの間、または眠れない根本的な原因を解消するまでの間の睡眠を一時的に補助するものだと考え、利用することをお勧めします。

睡眠導入剤の副作用には、以下のものが代表的です。

  • 依存性:長期で服用した場合、体内に耐性が作られます。そのため、効果を得るための内服量が増加していきます。内服量が増えると下記の副作用が強く出る可能性が高くなります。また、長期的服用の後に医師の指示なくぱっと急にやめると、服用する前以上に不眠症状が悪化する場合があります。
  • 持ち越し効果:睡眠導入剤には、その種類に応じて定められた内服時間と効果時間があります。内服時間を間違えた場合、寝起き後や日中まで催眠作用が働いてしまう場合があります。急な眠気や思考力の低下だけでなく、時に運転事故など命に関わる危険性もあるので注意が必要です。
  • 筋弛緩作用:睡眠導入剤は脳の活動を穏やかにさせ、全身の筋肉も力の入っていない弛緩状態になります。そのため、夜中のトイレや寝起きなど、筋弛緩作用が働いている場合に動こうと下場合、足の踏ん張りなどが効かずに転倒し怪我に繋がる場合があります。特にご老人の方々は一度の転倒で骨折等をしてしまう可能性が高いため、より注意が必要です。

睡眠導入剤を利用する際には、 必ず専門の医師にかかり、適切な用法用量をお守り下さい 。また、睡眠導入剤なしでも眠れるようになったとしても、自己判断で急に辞めてしまってはいけません。その場合、よりひどい不眠症状が出現する場合があるからです。睡眠導入剤の利用にあたっては、医師と相談し、最後までアドバイスを受けながら利用することが大切です。

1−3.まず睡眠の質を上げる工夫をする

睡眠薬はあなたの眠れない夜を一時的に解消するのに役立ちます。ですが、あなたが眠れない根本的な原因を解消してくれるわけではありません。

また、睡眠薬の利用は、質の低い睡眠を取り続けてしまう結果となる場合や、辛い副作用を生じさせてしまう場合もあります。いずれにせよ、睡眠薬を利用した睡眠は、一時的なものに留めておくことが大切です。

睡眠薬なしで質の高い睡眠をとり、心身を十分に回復させるには主に次の4つの要素を準備することが必要です。

  • 深い睡眠をとるための準備をする
  • 就寝中に睡眠を妨害しないように睡眠環境を整える
  • 生活習慣を正し、体内リズムを整える
  • 自分に必要な睡眠時間を把握する

上記の4つの要素の具体的な実践方法については、今晩から安眠しよう!4つのステップでばちっと安眠する方法の記事で詳しく説明しています。是非ご活用頂き、質の高い睡眠をとるために行動をしてみて下さい。

船橋市 非公認 ご当地 ゆるキャラ ふなっしー ぬいぐるみ 抱き枕 (単品)
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まとめ

ここまでで、市販の睡眠薬の効果と副作用、注意点についてご紹介してきました。市販の睡眠薬は「睡眠改善薬」と「睡眠導入剤」の2種類に分けられます。それぞれ効果が出る仕組みや生じる副作用が違うため、そのどちらも理解してから睡眠薬を利用することが大切です。

睡眠薬は眠れない夜を助けてくれる心強いアイテムです。しかし一方で副作用という危険もはらんでいます。是非本記事をご活用頂き、正しい睡眠薬の利用方法を学んで下さい。あなたの快適な睡眠に、本記事が少しでもお役に立てれば幸いです。

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