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居眠り男

睡眠障害の原因を突き止めて眠れないをなくそう!

居眠りしてる男

睡眠障害がある場合にはその原因を把握することが重要です。

睡眠障害の症状があっても、その症状の原因によっては病院での治療が必要な場合もあるためです。睡眠障害を放置してしまい、原因を見逃すと、思わぬ病気などが隠れている場合もありえます。

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睡眠障害・症状の根底にあるもの

眠そうな犬

睡眠障害は不眠症や過眠症、睡眠中の中途覚醒など様々な症状があります。症状は様々ですが、睡眠障害で共通している点は、睡眠に関して何らかの問題を抱えているということが共通のポイントです。この睡眠障害の原因としては、様々なことが考えられ、一律に原因を指摘することは困難です。

例えば、不眠症一つをとっても、単に体が疲れていないという理由から起きることもあります。しかし、一方で不眠症が統合失調症などの重篤な心理的な病気の原因となってしまって現れることもあります。このように睡眠障害の症状自体は同じであっても、その根底にある原因は個別に異なり、一律で考えることはできません。

睡眠障害はその症状自体(もちろん、それは苦しいものではあります)よりも、むしろその背景にある、睡眠障害の原因を突き止めることが重要ということもできます。睡眠障害にはどのような原因があるのでしょうか。

睡眠障害の原因

睡眠障害の原因としては、大きく分けて(1)精神的または身体的疾患によるものと(2)生理的な原因によるものとに分けることができます。後者の生理的な原因によるものは、あまり大きな問題はないということができます(詳しくは後述します)。

睡眠障害の原因として大きな問題を抱えるものは、主として(1)精神的または身体的疾患が原因となって発症する睡眠障害です。

まず、背後に精神的疾患があると睡眠障害の形で症状が現れる場合があります。睡眠は人間の精神バランス維持や脳の休息のために重要な働きをしますので、これらのバランスが崩れ、精神的な疾患がある場合には睡眠障害の形をとって症状として現れることとなります。睡眠障害の原因となる精神的な疾患としてはうつ病や統合失調症(かつては精神分裂病と呼ばれていた病です)などがあります。

精神的疾患が原因となって睡眠障害を発症する場合には、睡眠障害以外にもそれぞれの病気ごとに症状が現れます。例えば、統合失調症の場合であれば、妄想や幻聴など通常では考えられない物事を真実の出来事として把握するような症状が現れます。また、うつ病であれば、無気力感・減退感などがともに発症します。

次に、身体的疾患が原因となって睡眠障害が現れる場合には、循環器系や呼吸器系の疾患が原因となっている可能性があります。例えば、虚血型心疾患(狭心症など)であれば、血流が悪いために睡眠をとっても体が休むことができず、中途覚醒や日中の倦怠感などが生じ得ます。喘息などの呼吸器系疾患があれば、睡眠中に喘息発作で目が覚めてしまうので、十分に眠ることができずに、睡眠障害となります。

これらのように、精神的・身体的疾患が原因となって不眠症や過眠症・中途覚醒などの睡眠障害を引き起こす場合があります。これらの病気が背後にある場合には、多くの場合、何らかの自覚症状があることが通常ということができます。そのため、思い当たる点がある場合には早めにそれぞれの専門医に相談することが重要です。また、周りの方が通院を勧めることも大切になります。

生理的な原因による睡眠障害

一方で、あまり心配が不要な、生理的な理由による睡眠障害もあります。例えば、海外旅行に行ったことから生じた、時差ボケによる過眠症などです。これは、体のリズムと日付変更線のリズムが合致しないことが原因で生じる、やむを得ない理由による睡眠障害ということができます。

他にも、仕事の関係で昼夜交代制の仕事が繰り返されたために一時的に体調が変調をきたしてしまったことが原因となって生じる睡眠障害は問題がないといえます。これらの生理的な原因による睡眠障害は、まさに現代社会における構造的な現象ということができます。

ただ、あまりにも生理的な状態に変調をきたすリズムを取り続ければ、うつ病などの精神的疾患を引き起こすこととなる可能性も否定できませんので、可能な限りで交替勤務を避けることができれば望ましいということができます。

ぐっすり眠れるクラシック
オムニバス
WARNER MUSIC JAPAN(WP)(M) (2007-08-22)
売り上げランキング: 111

睡眠障害の原因のまとめ

睡眠障害の原因は、疾患(精神的・身体的)が原因となっているものと生理的変化が原因に過ぎないものとに分けることができます。

そして、睡眠障害の原因が精神的・身体的疾患が原因である場合には、早めの治療をするべく、専門医に相談することが重要となります。

一方で、時差ボケなどの生理的な理由が睡眠障害の原因の場合には、あまり大きな問題はありませんが、可能な限りで身体への変調を来さないようなリズムで生活をしていくことが望ましいということができます。

睡眠障害は多くは現代の多忙な社会やストレス社会がもたらしているものです。現代に生きる以上、全ての多忙さやストレスから逃れることは不可能ですが、可能な限り、心身に健康な毎日を送ることで不眠症などの睡眠障害を取り除かれることをお祈りいたします。

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