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睡眠リズムを知り快適な朝を!崩れた睡眠リズムを改善する3つの方法

夜景

なんだか朝すっきり起きれない、十分寝たはずなのに眠い。起きた瞬間にそう思ったことはありませんか?

誰もが毎日とっている睡眠。その睡眠には実はリズムがあります。睡眠リズムがおかしくなると、十分な睡眠をとっているにも関わらず寝足りないと思ったり、疲労感を感じることがあります。

睡眠リズムはどのようなものであるか?また、睡眠リズムがおかしくなってしまった場合に改善するにはどうしたらよいかを本記事にてご紹介していきます。

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睡眠にもリズムがあった!

ベッドで睡眠する男

人が寝ている時、それは一見何もしていない状態のように見えますよね。ですが、寝ている時も人の脳は活発に活動しているんです。人の睡眠にはリズムがあります。それは、レム睡眠ノンレム睡眠です。レム睡眠とノンレム睡眠の働きとその違いは次の通りです。

レム睡眠

「体の睡眠」とも言われており、体はゆったりと弛緩し少しゆさぶったくらいでは起きません。レム睡眠は10~20分間ほどです。この時、脳波は起きている時と同じような活動をしており、急速な眼球運動がみられます。なお、人がみる夢はこのときに起こっているといわれています。

ノンレム睡眠

「脳の睡眠」と言われています。ノンレム睡眠は4つの段階があります。「1」うとうと
する状態→「2」すやすやと浅い眠り→「3」深い眠り→「4」最も深い眠りです。

人が眠りにつくときは、浅いノンレム睡眠から始まり、深いノンレム睡眠に入ります。そしてまた浅いノンレム睡眠に戻り、レム睡眠に入ります。この睡眠リズムは一晩中、1時間半のサイクルで繰り返されているのです。
それでは、この睡眠のリズムがおかしくなってしまうと、体にどのような影響を及ぼすのでしょうか。次の項で詳しくみていきましょう。

睡眠のリズムがおかしくなるとどうなる?

レム睡眠、ノンレム睡眠は、両方とも睡眠には欠かせない大切なリズムです。その中でも、睡眠の約80%を占めるノンレム睡眠は1日の疲れた体を癒し、再生する働きがあります。ノンレム睡眠のときは、人のさまざまな生理的な機能(血圧や心拍数、体温や脳の活動など)が低下しているため、身体が深い休息状態にあります。また、身体の臓器、肌の修復、骨の維持や成長に必要なホルモンもノンレム睡眠時に分泌されます。

もし、睡眠のリズムがおかしくなってしまった場合、体を癒し再生できないため、次の日に疲労感が残ってしまいます。また、「体の睡眠」と「脳の睡眠」のバランスが崩れてしまうと、日中、集中力の低下や居眠りなどを引き起こします。

たくさん寝ているのに昼間ずっと眠い、疲労感があると感じている方は、もしかすると睡眠リズムが崩れているのかもしれません。では、睡眠リズムを改善するためにはどのようにしたらよいのでしょう?次にその改善方法をご紹介します。

睡眠リズムを改善するには

睡眠リズムを改善する方法は次の3つです。

  • 体内の時計をしっかりと整える
  • 正しい睡眠時間を知ろう
  • 目覚めやすい時間に起きる

それでは、上記のポイントを具体的にみていきましょう。

体内の時計をしっかりと整える

人には体内時計があります。太陽が顔を見せることで人は目覚め、暗くなると体が休む準備を始めて眠りにつく、それはこの体内時計があるからなのです。

しかし、現代の世の中は24時間営業のお店が増え、人が夜に活動しやすい環境にあります。そのほかに、テレビやパソコン、携帯電話など夜に照明の光を浴びることが多くあります。これらは、人の体内時計を遅らせる原因になり、睡眠リズムをおかしくする要因とも考えられています。夜、睡眠をとる2時間前はテレビやパソコン、携帯電話の使用を控えましょう。そして朝起きたときはカーテンをしっかりと開け、太陽の光を浴びるとより効果的です。

正しい睡眠時間を知ろう

人の睡眠時間は年齢によって異なります。11歳から17歳くらいまでの年齢だと、約8時間半から9時間半ほどの睡眠時間が適切です。成人だと、大体7時間から9時間の間と言われています。ですが、この睡眠時間にこだわる必要はありません。大事なのは、次の3つです。

  • 朝起きたときに疲労感や眠気がある
  • 14時前後に眠気を感じる
  • 1日をすっきりと元気に過ごせていない

上記に当てはまるという方は睡眠時間が足りていない可能性があります。十分な睡眠時間というのは人によって異なりますので、足りていないと感じる場合は、少し睡眠時間を増やしてみましょう。

目覚めやすい時間に起きる

前述で述べた睡眠リズムは、1時間半の周期でやってきます。

そして、眠りが一番浅いとされるレム睡眠のときに起きるとスッキリと目覚めることができるといわれています。そのため、ご自身が起きたい時間から逆算をし、1時間半のサイクルになる時間で就寝すると良いでしょう。例として、朝7時に起きるという方は11時半ということです。しかし、布団に入ってもすぐに眠れないことも考えられるため、その時間も含めて計算しましょう。

もし朝7時に起きる方は、11時半には寝ると良いですが、寝付くまで30分かかる場合は11時には布団に入ると適切といえます。

まとめ:睡眠のリズムを知って気持ちの良い目覚めを

本記事では睡眠のリズムを改善するための方法を3つご紹介してきました。朝寝足りない、なんだか疲労感を感じるという方は、次の3つをもう一度見直してみてください。

  • 体内の時計をしっかりと整える
  • 正しい睡眠時間を知ろう
  • 目覚めやすい時間に起きる

睡眠は一日を気持ちよく過ごすためにとても重要な役割を果たしています。また、睡眠のリズムはどのようなものかを知ることにより、ご自身の適切な起床時間、また睡眠時間を把握することができます。みなさんが朝気持ちよく起き、一日を元気よく過ごすことができるよう、是非本記事を参考にしてみてくださいね。

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