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居眠り男

四環系抗うつ薬のテトラミドの特徴と睡眠欲求について

寝る男

睡眠障害などを引き起こすうつ病は、現在ではどの方もかかってしまう可能性がある、ある意味「身近な」疾患ということができます。うつ病に対しては薬の服用による対策を取ることが中心となります。うつ病治療に用いられる薬の一つとしてテトラミドと呼ばれる薬があります。これは、種類としては四環系抗うつ薬と呼ばれるタイプのものです。

この四環系抗うつ薬であるテトラミドは他の抗うつ薬と比べた場合、どのような特徴があるのでしょうか。

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うつ病治療の基本となる薬物療法と薬物の種類

悩む男

ストレスが蔓延していると言っても過言ではない現代社会において、うつ病は誰にとっても、もはや「身近な病気になっている」ということができます。うつ病になってしまうと睡眠障害ややる気の減退、その他妄想や幻聴、自殺念慮などさまざまな生活上の障害が現れてきてしまいます。

うつ病は脳のセロトニンという脳内物質が正常に作用しないということが原因であり、治療法は薬の投与、つまり薬物療法が中心となります。うつ病に対して用いられる薬物としてはさまざまなものがあります。その種類として代表的なものとしては、三環系抗うつ薬・四環系抗うつ薬・SSRIなどがあります。

このようにさまざまなうつ病薬がある中で、テトラミドと呼ばれるタイプの抗うつ薬があります。比較的処方されることが多いテトラミドですが、その作用や副作用としてはどのようなものがあるのでしょうか。

テトラミドは四環系抗うつ薬

テトラミドは、抗うつ薬の中では四環系抗うつ薬と呼ばれる種類の薬物に分類されます。四環系抗うつ薬は、後述致します、SSRIと比べた場合にやや特徴的な作用を生じさせる薬物です。すなわち、テトラミドはうつ病に関係する脳内物質のうち、ノルアドレナリンという物質を放出させることでうつ病状態を解消するという作用をもたらすものです。

テトラミドはおおむね、2週間から3週間程度継続して服用することで抗うつの効果が現れてきます。2週間から3週間程度継続して飲むことで例えば不眠症などの睡眠障害の症状が緩和してくることになります。

テトラミドとSRRI、三環系抗うつ薬の比較とテトラミドの副作用

このようにテトラミドは四環系抗うつ剤として比較的広く活用されている抗うつ薬ですが、実は現在ではテトラミドよりもSRRIと呼ばれる抗うつ薬の方が広く用いられています。SRRIはうつの原因となるセロトニンという物質の減少を少なくすることを主要な目的とするもので、比較的最近認可された抗うつ薬です。

テトラミドがノルアドレナリンを放出させて睡眠障害などのうつ病を解消させるものであることに対して、SRRIはセロトニンという物質の活動を積極化させて睡眠障害などを解消します。

テトラミドとSRRIを比較した場合、後者は前者に比べてやや効果が弱めに設定されているという点が特徴です。ただ、一方で副作用は少なくなっています。他方、テトラミドはSRRIと比較した場合、副作用がやや強めであることが特徴です。

具体的には、強い睡眠欲求をもたらしてしまうということが四環系抗うつ薬であるテトラミドの大きな特徴です。つまり、テトラミドを飲むと強い眠気が襲ってくるということです。

四環系の抗うつ薬であるテトラミドがもたらす睡眠欲求という副作用は、さらに前から存在している三環系の抗うつ薬と比べれば決して大きくはないものですが、テトラミドを服用した際の睡眠欲求は非常に強いものとなってしまうことがあります。

テトラミドはSRRIよりも効果が高いものの睡眠欲求などの副作用についてはSRRIよりもさらに強いものとなります。一方で、三環系の抗うつ薬よりも睡眠欲求等の副作用は低いものとして作られています。

テトラミドについては高い睡眠欲求という副作用は生じやすいものですが、処方にあたってはしっかりと医師・薬剤師からの説明があるはずです。テトラミドの利用に関しては睡眠欲求が強くなることも考慮して、運転前などの服用は避けることなどが重要となります。

テトラミドを利用するにあたってはあらかじめ睡眠時間の前に服用するなど時間を調整することも効果的ということができるでしょう。またうつ病に対する薬の選択・処方は医師が経験と医学的な見地から慎重に行うことになりますが、睡眠量などで問題が生じる場合には、薬について変更の相談をすることも重要ということができます。

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究極の眠れるCD

posted with amazlet at 14.04.01
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デラ (2002-07-22)
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まとめ:抗うつ薬のテトラミドの特徴や副作用のまとめ

以上、本文で述べました抗うつ薬・テトラミドの特徴や副作用についてのポイントをまとめますと以下のように言うことができます。

  • テトラミドは抗うつ薬の一種です。種類としては四環系と呼ばれる抗うつ薬に分類されます
  • テトラミドは現在利用が主流であるSRRIに比べれば処方される頻度は少なくなっています。ただ、SRRIよりも高い効能があるという場合もあります
  • テトラミドについては、副作用として強い睡眠欲求が生じてしまうという天が大きな問題となります。テトラミドによる睡眠欲求についてはあらかじめ睡眠前に服用するなど利用する時間を調整したり、場合によっては他の薬への変更などを医師に相談することも必要となる場合があります

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