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頭痛の男性
頭痛の男性

睡眠時の2パターンの脳波と睡眠不足・睡眠障害の改善策!

頭痛の男性

質の良い睡眠を摂るには睡眠時の脳波のメカニズムを理解し、乱れを調節する事が大切です。

なぜなら、睡眠中の脳波は2種類あり、その両方の脳波が発生している睡眠の状態を十分に確保することで、質の高い睡眠をとることができるからです。

また、睡眠時の脳波の乱れは、日々の生活習慣やストレスが主な原因です。それらを改善していく事により、2種類の脳波を睡眠中に十分に味わい、質の良い睡眠をとれるようになります。

そこで、本記事では睡眠中の脳波のメカニズムと睡眠の質を改善する方法についてご紹介していきます。

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睡眠の仕組み・脳波のメカニズムを知ろう

睡眠は、脳波の種類によってレム睡眠ノンレム睡眠の二種類に分けられます。

レム睡眠の時の脳波は浅い睡眠を示しています。また、レム睡眠はまぶたの下の眼球運動をともなう睡眠で、夢をみている状態のことを指します。体は動きませんが脳は日中と同じような活動をしており、この時間に目覚めると気持ちよく起きることができます。

ノンレム睡眠の時の脳波は深い睡眠を示しています。また、ノンレム睡眠は脳を休息させる為の深い眠りで、S1~S4と4つのステージに分けられています。その中でもS3とS4がもっとも脳の活動が穏やかになり、深い睡眠を得られる状態で、脳波の波形から徐波睡眠と呼ばれ、一晩の睡眠の前半に多く出現します。この睡眠こそが「質の良い睡眠」の決め手になると言われています。

さらにこの二つの睡眠には、それぞれの役割があり…

レム睡眠

  • 精神回復及び感情の安定
  • 記憶の定着・強化
  • 情報の整理
  • 体の休息

ノンレム睡眠

  • 免疫力の向上
  • 傷ついた細胞の修復
  • 肌質の改善
  • 脳の休息

と、上記のように分かれています。レム睡眠は精神面の回復、及び体の休息を司り、ノンレム睡眠は身体の回復、及び脳の休息を司っている事が分かります。

またレム睡眠のような浅い眠りの時に目覚めると、すっきりとした目覚めになりますが、その間にノンレム睡眠をしっかりととらないと熟睡感は得られず日中眠くなることもあるので、レム睡眠とノンレム睡眠のバランスが大切になります。

睡眠不足・睡眠障害のタイプと原因

人間が生きていくにあたって、睡眠とは不可欠なものですが、近年睡眠不足に悩まされている方が増加の一方をたどっているのはなぜでしょう?

そこには現代社会で受けるストレスや、生活習慣の乱れなどが大きく関与してきます。睡眠不足になる原因は一概には言えませんが、主な要因としては

  • 肉体的な負担
  • 精神的なストレス
  • 生活習慣の乱れ

が挙げられます。他にも心身の病気などからも十分な睡眠がとれなくなることもありますが、本人の努力や心がけで改善することが出来る要因が多いです。

また、睡眠不足が定期的に続くようになると睡眠障害へと変わり、慢性的に脳波が正常に作用せず、十分な睡眠がとれないようになります。睡眠不足や睡眠障害に悩まされている方は、自分のタイプを把握して、それに合った改善策を実行することが必要です

  • 入眠困難…床に就いてから中々寝付けないタイプ
  • 中途覚醒…朝起きるまでに何度も目覚めてしまうタイプ
  • 早朝覚醒…朝早く目覚めてしまい再び眠れないタイプ
  • 熟眠障害…十分な睡眠時間をとっているのに、眠りが浅く熟睡感が得られないタイプ

タイプはこの4つに分かれ、それぞれ要因が異なってきます。入眠困難の方の場合、日頃のストレスや漠然な不安などからくる緊張が主な要因になり、熟眠障害の方の場合、環境の変化や就寝環境の問題などが出てきます。

このように、それぞれの要因を突き止め、タイプにあった改善策を見つけることが大切になります。

解決策と心がけること

脳波

睡眠不足・睡眠障害には様々な要因があり、それぞれにあった改善策を見つけなければなりません。

肉体的負荷の場合
就寝前にストレッチやマッサージなど、体中の血液の循環をよくし、身体の緊張をほぐすことが大切です。ゆっくりと温めのお湯に浸かることも効果的です。

精神的なストレスの場合
ストレスや不安の元となる問題の解決が、一番肝心になりますが、それをすぐに解決出来ない場合、体の力を意識的に抜いてリラックスすることでストレスを和らげることが大切になります。

例えばゆったりと座った状態で深呼吸をする、や、アロマテラピーの香りを楽しむ、落ち着いた曲調の音楽を聴くなどが効果的です。この時、部屋の照明を暗くしておくと、睡眠物質・メラトニンが分泌されてくるのでより眠りにつきやすくなります。

就寝前に避けるべき行為
睡眠不足の原因として、知らずに眠気を妨げる行為をしていることがあります。

  • 就寝前のカフェインの摂取
  • 就寝前の運動や入浴
  • 就寝前の食事
  • 就寝前に強い光にあたる
  • 朝や昼に日の光を浴びていない
  • 運動不足

などの行為は眠気を妨げる可能性があります。

これらの行為に気をつけることも、質の良い睡眠に繋がります。とくに朝や昼に太陽の日を浴びることで、体内時計がリセットされ、睡眠物質やメラトニンが多く作られるので睡眠不足などには効果的です。

まとめ:心身ともにリラックスすること

睡眠不足や睡眠障害を改善するには、日頃の生活習慣の見直しやストレスからの解放などが大切ですが、なにより心身ともにリラックスした状態になることが大切になります。

  • 就寝前のストレッチやマッサージ
  • 温めのお湯に浸かる
  • 深呼吸やアロマテラピー、または音楽、程よい読書など

またレム睡眠の間に目覚めると寝起きもすっきりとするので、90分の倍数で目覚ましをかけるのもいいでしょう。

上記のことを心がけ十分な睡眠をとることが生活の基盤にもなっていくので、夜中々寝付けない方や、眠りの浅い方は是非本記事を参考に試してみてください。

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