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adhdの方の睡眠障害の症状と対策

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adhdというのは、注意欠陥多動性障害と呼ばれる脳の障害の一種です。adhdの場合、多動性・や注意欠如などが現れて仕事に就くことが困難であるなど社会生活上大きな困難を生じてしまうことがあります。このadhdの方は多くの場合には睡眠障害も併発しやすいという特徴があります。

adhdの方が睡眠障害を発症してしまいやすいのは一体どうしてなのでしょうか。また、対策としてはどのような治療を用いることになるのでしょうか。本稿では睡眠障害との関係を中心にadhdの症状や治療についてのポイントをまとめていきます。

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adhdと睡眠障害の関わり

脳レントゲン

adhdという言葉をご存知でしょうか。adhdは注意欠陥多動性障害と呼ばれる一種の障害です。Adhdは一般的には子供に多く見られることが多いと言えます。大人の方でもadhdをお持ちになっている方はおられますが、多くの場合には、すでに専門的な治療を受けていることが多いため、一般に見かけることは少ない傾向にあります。

しかし、街中などで、あまりに大きな声で騒いてしまっている子供や十分な理由もないのに暴れてしまっている子供、あるいは接している中で注意力があまりにも散漫な子供はadhdという障害の可能性があります。一見すると「しつけがよくない子」というイメージを持ってしまう子がadhdの症状の特徴です。

しかし、adhdは生まれつきの脳の障害によって、多動性、集中力の欠如などが生じてしまっている状態です。そのため、決して不十分なしつけなどが原因で多動性などの症状が出ているわけではなく、一種の障害として専門医による治療・投薬が必要な状態となります。

このadhdの子供(大人も同じですが主として子供が多いので子供に焦点を当ててご説明をしていきます)は、多くの場合、睡眠障害を伴います。adhdと睡眠障害には大きな関係があるということができます。

adhdと睡眠障害の症状

adhdの子供の睡眠障害は基本的に睡眠時間が短いという症状で発症することになります。例えば、以下のような睡眠障害の状態が現れます。

  • 夜間の睡眠中に何度も目を覚ます(おおむね3回から4回程度)
  • 覚醒後、1時間程度睡眠に入ることができない
  • 睡眠不足が原因で日中にイライラがたまり、暴れるなどの行動につながる

adhdの子供の場合、どうしても多動性やそれに基づく脳の興奮状態が続いてしまうためになかなか睡眠をとることができません。そのため、睡眠時間が短くなるという形で睡眠障害が発症しやすくなります。

adhdの子を持たれた場合や身近にadhdの方がいる場合には睡眠についての困難に対して理解が必要と言えます。

adhdやそれに基づく睡眠障害の治療法

adhdやそれに基づく睡眠障害に対しては、専門的な治療が行われることとなります。具体的には、薬物の投与が治療の中心として利用されることになります。

例えば、adhdに対して伝統的に用いられている薬物療法としては「リタリン」という薬物の投与が行われていました。リタリンは、国際的にも信頼性が高いadhd治療薬として用いられています。しかし、リタリンは効果があまり長く続かないなどのデメリットもあり、最近注目されているのはコンサータという薬物です。

コンサータは効能が12時間程度続き、adhdによる多動的・衝動的な行動をおさえて社会生活をすることが容易になりやすくなります。また、脳に作用しますので、脳の興奮状態を抑えて睡眠を促すという働きもあり、睡眠障害の状態におちいっている場合にも効果があると言えます。

adhdによる睡眠障害については、睡眠障害の原因となっているadhdを可能な限りコントロールして睡眠の質を高くすることが重要と言えます。

また、adhdは基本的には根本的に治療することが期待できない症状ということもでき、薬の適切な処方が重要です。adhdは適切な薬の処方・治療によってしっかりと付き合っていくことが可能な障害です。

周りの方も十分にadhdについて理解をして、温かい目で見守っていくことが大切ということができるでしょう。

なお、adhdによる睡眠障害が激しく、あまりにも眠ることができない状態などの場合にはやや強めの睡眠導入剤などが一時的に処方されることもあります。Adhdに対しては、現在の症状・状態に合わせて投与する薬を変えていくという対処を行うこともあります。

まとめ:adhdと睡眠障害についてのまとめ

以上、本文で述べましたadhdと睡眠障害の関係についてポイントをまとめますと以下のように言うことができます。

  • adhdは注意欠陥多動性障害という一種の脳の障害です。adhdの方は多動性(落ち着きのなさ)や場にそぐわない騒ぎ方などが脳の障害が原因で発生してしまいます
  • adhdは、いわば脳が活性化しすぎているような状態ですので、睡眠障害が引き起こされやすいという特徴があります。具体的には睡眠後も何回も目を覚ましてしまったり、眠ることができなくなってしまうなどといった症状を引き起こしやすいと言えます
  • adhdに対しては、主として薬物療法が用いられます。最近では効果が長続きする新しいタイプの薬なども発表されており、adhdの症状を落ち着かせることが睡眠障害の解消のためには有益です

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