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寝起きの血圧は健康の指標!早朝の血圧に注意するべき理由

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「血圧が低い人は寝起きが弱い」とはよく言われていますが、その一方「血圧と寝起きは関係がない」ということもよく聞かれます。また、高血圧は体に悪いと言われたり、血圧と健康はあまり関係がないと言い張る人もいますよね。

血圧は、実は健康状態を知るための最大のバイタルサインなのです。寝起きの血圧は高すぎても低すぎてもいけませんが、そのことを知るためにも定期的に血圧を測ることが望ましいと言えるでしょう。

この記事では、特に重要な「寝起きの血圧」についてご説明いたします。

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血圧とは何か

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病院の健康診断などで測ったことがある人が多くいると思いますが、「血圧」というのが何なのかは意外ときちんと知らない方が多いのではないでしょうか。

血圧とは結果何部の血液の有する圧力のことです。通常は、動脈の血圧のことをさしますが、これは心臓の収縮期と拡張期の血圧といいます。収縮期血圧のことを「上の血圧」といい、拡張期血圧のことを「下の血圧」といいます。

これらの血圧には適正血圧がありますが、平均的な血圧というものにこだわる必要はほとんどありません。「ここからここまでなら正常な血圧、そうでなければ高血圧」といった具合にはっきりと断定されています。

血圧の程度は上の血圧に対して、下の血圧との関係で表されます。

  • 至適正値:収縮期血圧(上の血圧)<20 mmHg、拡張期血圧(下の血圧)< 80 mmHg
  • 正常血圧:収縮期血圧(上の血圧)<130 mmHg、拡張期血圧(下の血圧)<85 mmHg
  • 正常高値血圧:130 < 収縮期血圧(上の血圧)<139 mmHg、85 <拡張期血圧(下の血圧)< 89 mmHg
  • I度高血圧(軽症):140 < 収縮期血圧(上の血圧)<159 mmHg、90 <拡張期血圧(下の血圧)< 99 mmHg
  • II度高血圧(中等症):160 < 収縮期血圧(上の血圧)<179 mmHg、100 <拡張期血圧(下の血圧)<109 mmHg 
  • III度高血圧(重症): 180 mmHg ≦ 収縮期血圧(上の血圧)、110 mmHg ≦ 拡張期血圧(下の血圧)

これらの高血圧には特に注意する必要があります。Ⅲ度高血圧の場合には、至適正値の血圧に比べて18倍以上も死亡リスクが高いとされているのです。

このように、血圧は年齢や性別と関係なく適正値が定められており、それらを知るためには定期的に血圧をはかるしかないのです。

低血圧のツラさ

こうした高血圧については医療機関でも注意されていますが、低血圧についてはほとんど理解されているのが現状だと言えるでしょう。とはいえ、現代社会の食生活や生活環境においては低血圧であることはそれほど大きなデメリットであったり、重篤な病気になるリスクである可能性は比較的低いとされています。

また、高血圧と違って「低血圧」については基準がありません。概ね適正値を下回れば低血圧と言われています。

注意したいのは「本態性低血圧」という原因不明の低血圧症状があるものです、特別な原因がなく体にも異常がないにもかかわらず低血圧だけが発症する「低血圧体質」のことをこのようにいいます。生れつきのもので、遺伝性があるとされています。

ほかに横になった状態から立ち上がることで引き起こされる「起立性低血圧」や病気の二次障害で発生する「二次性低血圧」などがあります。低血圧にもいろいろな種類があるのです。

低血圧の回復方法

つらい寝起きの低血圧は「起立性低気圧」である場合や、副交感神経から交感神経への切り替わりが遅い人に起こると言われています。

低血圧は治療が必要な病気とは通常みなされませんし、いわゆる「治療」はありません。むしろ健康の証とみなしてもよいでしょう。病気の二次障害である場合や、大量の失血後の低血圧は気をつける必要があります。気になる場合には内科で血圧検査をしてもらうのが良いでしょう。

寝起きの低血圧を撃退するためには、無理な処置は禁物です。また、低血圧だと思っている場合でも実はそれ「貧血」の可能性があります。鉄分のある食事をきちんととって、よい血液の状態を保ってください。

熱いシャワーを浴びる

血圧を急激にあげる方法はあまり推奨できませんが、42度前後の熱いシャワーをたっぷりと浴びると、交感神経が刺激されて体が起きてきます。低血圧の方も血流をよくする効果があります。

寝起きに熱いお湯を飲むのもよいでしょう。

熱いシャワーを浴びたら、風邪をひかないようにすぐ服をきてご飯を食べましょう。

椅子で寝る

低血圧の方は、起きてもすぐ寝たくなってしまうことが多いと思います。そのたびにベットに入るとまた起きられなくなってしまいます。椅子で寝ると血圧の低下を防ぎ体を早く起こすことができます。

オムロン HEM-7200 自動血圧計
オムロン
売り上げランキング: 132

まとめ:寝起きの低血圧は問題なし

低血圧はほとんど問題がありません。寝起きがつらい場合には、あついお風呂にはいったり、寝起きで温かいお湯を飲んだりするのも効果があります。

高血圧に比べて、低血圧は健康の証拠と言われています。寝起きの低気圧の辛さは血圧を無理に上げようと思わず、適切な朝の活動を行うことで起きるようにしてください。

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