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ナルコレプシーの対策

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ナルコレプシーとは、毎日充分眠っているにもかかわらず、1日に数回激しい睡魔に教われて突然眠ってしまう奇病です。10代の若者に多く発症する事から、本人も周りの人も病気と判断されにくい為、この病気の治療方法が分からず悩んでいる人は沢山いるでしょう。

もしあなたがナルコレプシーと判断されたなら、ある意味とても幸運です。この病気は投薬による治療により生活がかなり改善される事が分かっているからです。 しかし、間違った判断により、治療効果が上がらない場合があります。今回は本人のこの病気の謝った考えと、まわりの人に誤解されない方法と対策を考えてみましょう。

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ナルコレプシー患者の謝った考え方

「よく幽霊を見てしまう。自分には霊感がある」

考える

本当に見てしまう可能性がゼロとは言いませんが、この病気の人が幽霊を見る場合はほとんどが幻覚といって良いでしょう。ナルコレプシーの病気の特徴として、入眠時幻覚という症状があります。これは、入眠時の幻覚です。レム睡眠関連症状とも言います。

ナルコレプシーの患者さんは寝ついてすぐにレム睡眠になってしまうため、よく幽霊や幻覚をみてしまうのです。幻覚は、怪しい人影や化け物が危害を加えにくるなど、かなり現実感があり鮮明で恐ろしいものが多いようです。入眠時幻覚が見えるときは、よく金縛りになるのもこの病気の特徴です。逃げようにも体は動かず声も出せないため、恐怖感が増幅されます。しかし大体数分以内になくなります。

「自分は刺激に弱い 軟弱である」

これは、情動脱力発作(カタプレキシー)と呼ばれる症状です。この病気の1つで、笑う、喜ぶ、怒る、驚く、興奮するなど、強い感情の動きが引き金になって、全身の筋力(特に抗重力筋)が左右同時に抜けてしまう発作です。よく漫画で主人公がヘナヘナと倒れこむシーンがありますよね。あんな感じに身体が脱力してしまうのです。脱力が激しい場合には、その場に倒れこむことがあります。発作が軽い場合は、呂律が回りにくい、頭が前に垂れ下がる、膝が笑うなどが軽い症状が起こる場合があります。

「自分は夜型である」

ナルコレプシーの患者さんは日中に激しく睡魔に襲われる事が多いため、勝手に自分は夜の活動に向いていると考えがちです。しかしこれは全くの間違いです。

日中どんなに眠くなったとしても、夜も充分に睡眠を取る必要があります。この病気は昼夜逆転の生活を続けるとなる確率が高くなると言われいます。朝日を浴びて体内時計をリセットし、夜は充分に睡眠を取ってメラトニンの分泌を増やしましょう。規則正しい生活が重要です。投薬治療に大切なのは、早寝早起きです。決まった時間に寝起きする習慣をつけましょう。

「自分は駄目な人間だ」

ナルコレプシーの患者さんは、長期の日中の眠気、居眠りのために周りの人に誤解や叱責をされやすくなります。日常生活でも挫折を繰り返し、自信を失い、劣等感にとらわれがちです。このため、うつ病になる人も沢山います。しかし長期間のうちに物事にこだわらない、自己主張の少ない、人のよい、親しみやすい、張りのない、あきらめやすい性格が形成されるとも言われています。これはナルコレプトイド性格(narcoleptoid personality)と呼ばれています。

ナルコレプシーの人への対策

あなたのまわりにこの病気の人がいたら、温かい配慮が必要です。しばしば怠けていると誤解されやすい病気なので、本人も周りの人もこの病気の正しい知識を身につける必要があります。

「日中の短い睡眠を容認する」

ナルコレプシーの人は1日に4~5回、突然20分程度の短い睡魔に襲われます。むりやり起こすと覚醒はしますが、また1時間もしないうちに同じ状態が繰り返されます。これは「睡眠発作」と言われる症状なので、黙認してあげましょう。

「飲み会に誘わない」

夜の飲み会は、ナルコレプシーの人にとって症状を悪化させる原因になります。飲酒は投薬の効果が薄れるのと睡眠時間の短縮という悪循環に襲われます。もともとナルコレプシーの人は睡眠が浅く、夜中に何度も起きてしまいがちです。そのためしばしば寝酒に頼る事が多いのです。寝る前の飲酒は一時深く眠れますがその分覚醒作用が働き、明け方前に起きて眠れなくなってしまう事がよくあります。夜の飲酒はなるべく控える様にしましょう。

「残業をさせない」

昼間寝ている分、夜働いてもらおうとか、本人も夜頑張って稼ごうと考えがちですが、これは間違った考えです。この病気にはストレスは禁物です。ただでさえうつ病を併発しやすい上に合併症として、肥満、頭痛、多汗症、糖尿病を疾患することが多いといいます。肥満者や高齢者では睡眠時無呼吸症候群を合併して日中の眠気が増強することもあるそうです。夜は充分に睡眠をとって休息しましょう。

睡眠障害診療ガイド
睡眠障害診療ガイド

posted with amazlet at 14.03.24
日本睡眠学会
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まとめ

いかがですか。ナルコレプシーの病気の人は、自分も周りの人も正しい知識を身につける事が大切です。規則正しい生活と投薬療法で、この病気は飛躍的に改善されます。是非本記事を参考にして、日々の生活に役立てて下さい。

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