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医師の男
医師の男

体がむくんだら腎臓に問題あり?むくみの原因と仕組みとは

医師の男

むくみは腎臓などに問題がある場合に生じえます。腎臓に機能不全があると、体に水がたまってしまい、むくみの原因となります。また、腎臓病以外が原因となってむくみが生じることもあります。

本稿では腎臓病の場合を中心としてむくみの様々な原因などについてまとめています。

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腎臓の働きと病気

熱のある女性

腎臓は人体の腰のあたりに2つある重要な臓器です。腎臓はそら豆のような形をしており、大きさはこぶし大です。腎臓は人間の生命活動にとても重要な働きをします。腎臓の働きとして有名なものとしては、血液から老廃物を抽出して尿を作るという働きがあります。その他にもホルモンの分泌に影響したり、体の水分を調整するなどの働きをします。このように腎臓は人体の活動に重要な影響を与える臓器です。

腎臓は、その機能が低下すると健康に重大な害が生じます。腎臓に機能不全が生じた場合、その症状を示すものとして体にむくみが生じることがあります。

腎臓の機能不全とむくみの症状

腎臓に悪影響が生じるとむくみが生じます。その理由は体に水がたまってしまうためです。
先に述べましたように、腎臓の働きとして老廃物や水分を排出するなどの働きがあります。しかし、腎臓の働きが低下すると、水分等を排出・調整することができないため、体に水分がたまり、むくみが生じることとなります。

より具体的には、水分をとっているのに尿があまり出なくなります。そのため、水分が体にたまりむくみが生じることとなります。腎臓に悪影響が生じた場合、むくみは体の様々な部位に生じることとなります。例えば、顔や手足にむくみが生じます。顔のむくみの場合は、朝起きた時に目の周りがむくむことが多くなります。

また、手足の場合、手や足の甲にむくみが生じます。むくみがある部位を手で押すと、むくみの部位はへこみます。そしてその後、再度むくみが生じます。横臥すると一見むくみがおさまりますが、実際には体の別の部位に水分が移転して、むくみがおさまるように見えるだけとなります。手のむくみの場合、指輪が抜けなくなるなどの症状によって腎臓の悪化に気づくこともあります。

むくみは内蔵に発生して自覚症状がない場合もあります。例えば、肺にむくみが生じてしまった場合、肺浮腫という別の病気が生じます。腎臓の悪化に伴い、肺にむくみが生じて呼吸困難が生じることとなります。

腎臓の悪化とむくみ以外の症状

腎臓が悪くなると、むくみ以外にも様々な症状が生じることがあります。例えば、尿に悪影響が生じます。尿量が極端に少なくなることがあります。また、高血圧にもなります。腎臓の機能が低下することで塩分の排出もなくなるので、血圧が高くなります。腎臓は重要な働きをする機能であるにもかかわらず、自覚症状が非常に少ないと言えます。

そのため、むくみのほか、尿の異常などが見られた場合には早急に医師の診察を受けることが大切です。

むくみの解消の方法

むくみを解消するためには、原因によって対策を変えることが必要となります。まず、腎臓の病気の場合には、腎臓に対して本格的な治療をすることが必要です。そのため、ご自身でむくみ解消の方法を検討するよりも、病院で腎臓病の治療を受けながら、結果としてむくみ解消を目指すこととなります。

その一方で、むくみの原因が腎臓病以外の場合の時もあります。むくみがある場合、腎臓病の危険性を疑うことは重要ですが、必ずしも腎臓病だけではなく、「立ちっぱなし」などの場合にもむくみは生じます。この場合には、一般的に健康に悪影響が生じていると考えられる状態を解消することでむくみを解消することにつながります。例えば、「立ちっぱなし」が原因で一過性にむくみが生じている場合には、少し休養を取りましょう。

また、逆に座りっぱなしで体内の水分が偏ることでむくみが生じることがあります。この場合には、逆に時々立ち上がるなどが重要です。腎臓病が原因ではないむくみは、体に良くない生活リズムが原因となることが多いので、生活リズムを良くすることでむくみの解消につながります。

むくみ解消の方法を考える場合には、原因が腎臓病によるものかそうでないものかの見分けが重要となります。

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まとめ:腎臓の機能不全とむくみの関係

以上、本文で述べましたむくみや腎臓の病気の関係についてまとめますと、以下のようになります。

  • 腎臓は人体において、老廃物を排出したり尿を作るなど重要な働きをする臓器です。この腎臓に機能不全が生じますと、体にむくみが生じることがあります。
  • 腎臓の悪化で体にむくみが生じる場合、むくみは顔や手足などに生じます。顔のむくみの場合、朝起きた時にむくみが生じることがあります。また、内蔵にもむくみが生じることがあります。この場合、特に肺にむくみが生じると肺浮腫となり、呼吸困難が生じてしまうこともあります
  • 腎臓病以外でもむくみは生じることがあります。腎臓病以外の原因でむくみが生じる場合には、多くの場合には、「立ちっぱなし」や「すわりっぱなし」などの体に良くない生活リズムが原因となっていることが多いため、そのような生活リズムを修正することでむくみがおさまることにつながります。

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Check Also

足のむくみをマッサージ

足の疲れとむくみの解消に効果的!簡単、速効性のある足枕

立ち仕事の方は、足のむくみに悩 …

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