Home / 健康 / 健康全般 / むくみ / むくみの7つの原因と2つの予防・解消法
足のむくみをマッサージ
足のむくみをマッサージ

むくみの7つの原因と2つの予防・解消法

足のむくみをマッサージする女性

なんとなく腫れ上がったような箇所を「むくみ」と呼び、原因はよく分からないけれどおそらく疲れかお酒の飲み過ぎか何かだろうと軽く考え、あまり気にせずにやり過ごしている方も多いのではないでしょうか。

あるいは、いつも夕方になるとむくんでしまうので、気にはしているけれど、事前に防げるものではないなどと誤解している方も多いと思います。

「むくみ」とは、血液中の水分が血管の中から外ににじみ出し、異常に増加した状態のことで、単なる「腫れる」という定義とは少し異なり、放って置くと色々な危険を招く可能性があるのです。

そこで本記事では、むくみの解消法についてはもちろん、むくみの予防法やむくむ箇所や症状から疑われる病気についてもいくつかご紹介していきたいと思います。

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むくみを症状とする病気とは

むくみ

むくみの原因には大きく分けて2つあり、短時間で治まる一過性のものと、病気や怪我などから来るものがあります。

後者は、肝臓病や妊娠中毒、腎臓・心臓病、血管やリンパ管の障害、貧血などから起きるのですが、各病気によって症状の現れ方に違いがあり、長時間むくんでいる場合や、体全体がむくんでいるような場合は一度病院に行って診察を受けた方が良いです。

そもそも、「むくみ」かどうかを判断するためには、むくんでいると思う箇所を指で20~30秒間押さえ、指を離したときに指の跡がくぼんでしばらく残るかどうかで確認することが出来るのですが、そんな「むくみ」と伴って他にも気になることがある場合には以下の病気が考えられることを知っていただきたいと思います。

1.腎性浮腫

むくみは別名「浮腫」と呼ばれ、その原因が腎臓にあるものを「腎性浮腫」と言います。

顔や手足のむくみの他に、尿が出にくいときにはネフローゼ症候群と言う腎臓と尿路の病気が考えられます。さらにそれに血圧の上昇や血尿が認められる場合には、急性糸球体腎炎と言う病気もありますし、他に腎性浮腫と言えば、糖尿病性腎症と言って、特に下肢のむくみと息切れなどを症状とするものもあります。

2.心性浮腫

心性浮腫は心肺機能に原因がある浮腫です。足を中心とするむくみが夕方にかけて強くなり、動悸や息切れなどの呼吸困難を伴う場合には慢性の心不全や、「肺性心」と言って肺での血液の流れが悪くなり、肺へ血液を送り出している右心室に負担がかかって心臓に異常をきたす病気が考えられます。

3.肝性浮腫

肝性浮腫の多くは肝硬変で、主には下肢のむくみですが、全身にまでむくみを生じることもあり、腹痛や黄疸、手掌紅斑等の症状を伴います。

肝硬変とは肝炎ウイルスやアルコールなどが主な原因で、肝細胞の壊死と炎症、再生を繰り返し、肝臓本来の小葉構造と血管系が破壊されて肝臓が小さく硬くなる病気です。

4.内分泌性浮腫

目の周りを中心とした顔のむくみと手足のむくみがあり、汗をかかず、寒がりである場合には、甲状腺機能低下症が考えられます。これは甲状腺ホルモンの分泌の低下に伴ってその活動性が低下する、女性に多くみられる病気です。

甲状腺ホルモンとは全身の代謝を維持するのに重要なホルモンです。このホルモンが低下すると昼夜を問わず眠く、全身の倦怠感を強く感じたり、記憶力や計算力が衰え、体温も低く、皮膚が乾燥し、脱毛が起こったり、声が低音化します。また、体重は増え、無月経になることもよくあり、挙げていくと実にさまざまな弊害を生むのです。

5.栄養障害性浮腫

手足のむくみとしびれ感、動悸、筋力の低下などの症状から疑われるのは、ビタミンB1欠乏症と言って末梢神経や中枢神経が侵される病気です。

6.静脈性浮腫

立位での足のだるさ・重量感・痛みとむくみの症状からなるのが静脈瘤です。遺伝的要因や妊娠、肥満、立ち仕事といった要素の関連が指摘される病気です。

又、頭やまぶた、腕のむくみが現れる病気として上大静脈症候群があり、上大静脈が閉塞または外部からの圧迫によって狭くなることによって起こります。

7.リンパ性浮腫

夕方にかかとを含む足の部分と手の甲のむくみ、皮膚の硬化が起こるのが、その名もリンパ浮腫です。リンパ管の圧迫や狭窄の為にリンパ管の流れが悪くなるとリンパ管の内容物(特にタンパク質)がリンパ管から外にしみ出し、その部分の皮膚が次第に硬くなる、若い女性に多くみられる病気です。

むくみを防ぐには

病気や異常が特になくても、過労や睡眠不足、運動不足、女性の月経時や妊娠時、長時間立っていると足がむくむことはよくあるでしょう。しかし放置していると疲れが取れずに免疫力の低下を引き起こし、むくみが脂肪に変化することもあります。そうなる前に、むくみ体質を改善することは出来るのです。

そこでこの項目では、病気以外から来るむくみの原因と共にその対策についてお教えしていきます。

1.塩分の摂り過ぎ

むくみの大きな原因の一つとして、塩分の多い食べ物は水分を寄せ付けてしまうので、水分代謝が悪くなります。

インスタント食品を控えることはもちろん、代謝を促すのに効果的な食材を摂るようにすることで、水分代謝を整えられます。栄養素で言うと、カリウムとクエン酸とビタミンEです。カリウムは、利尿作用があるので、体内の余分な水分を排出するのに役立ちます。具体的には椎茸などのきのこ類、じゃが芋などの芋類、えんどう豆や空豆などの豆類、フルーツではバナナにりんご、キウイやスイカなどに多く含まれています。

クエン酸は代謝をスムーズにする、疲労回復に効果的な成分です。レモンなどの柑橘類やトマト、梅干し、お酢に含まれています。最後にビタミンEですが、血液循環に大きな役割を果たす成分で、かぼちゃやほうれん草、ナツメ、アーモンド、ごまなどに多く含まれています。他にも鶏肉や豚レバー、牛肉、蜂蜜などが代謝を促す効果的な食材であるそうです。

2.筋肉がほぐれていない

むくみの症状が現れたらマッサージをして筋肉をほぐすようにする解消法が一般的ですが、むくみを予防する為にも日頃から筋肉がほぐれていることが大切です。

その為に一番効果的なのはやはりリンパマッサージですが、半身浴などをして体を温めたり、出来るだけ階段を使う・散歩をするなどの適度な運動を心掛け、足の先を意識的に動かすようにするだけでも大きな効果を生みます。

老廃物を流して、むくみを解消・免疫力UP! リンパマッサージ健康法
大橋 俊夫 佐藤 佳代子
PHP研究所
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まとめ:むくみの解消は健康につながる

一見むくみとは無縁だと言う人でも、顔や手足などの普段目に見えている場所の他に、意外と知られていないのが、舌のむくみです。舌の周囲に歯形がついたり、舌苔が厚いのは水分代謝の不良を示す立派な証拠だそうです。

むくみが出るということは体から何らかの異常を伝える危険信号が出ていると考え、大した問題ではないと無視することなく、しっかりと向き合うことが大切です。それはマッサージ然り、食生活の見直し然り、無理のない程度に体を動かすことで十分なのです。そうすることでむくみ以外の健康にも良い影響をもたらすことは間違いないですし、むくみからの解放は思いのほか、とても清々しいものですよ。

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Check Also

足のむくみをマッサージ

足の疲れとむくみの解消に効果的!簡単、速効性のある足枕

立ち仕事の方は、足のむくみに悩 …

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