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新生児は風邪をひく?新生児の風邪対策

赤ちゃん

生後1カ月未満の新生児は、約10か月母親のお腹で過ごしていた生活から、外へ出て生活することへ少しずつ切り替わっていきます。大きな病気や症状などにかからないように、細心の注意が必要と言われていたり、胎内で免疫をもらっているから新生児は風邪をひかないと言われたり、さまざまな情報があります。本当のところはどうなのでしょうか。

そこで、新生児の風邪対策について紹介します。赤ちゃんを風邪から守って、元気に過ごせるようにしましょう。

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新生児は風邪に感染する?

泣く

ウイルスが体内に入ってきて炎症を起こす病気である風邪は、多くの場合風邪にかかっている人のくしゃみや咳などによる飛沫感染でうつると言われています。また、手にウイルスが付いて、口内に感染する経口感染もあります。

生まれてすぐの時期の赤ちゃんは、一般的にお母さんのお腹にいる間に、病気に対する免疫をもらっていますので、病気にかかりにくいとされています。しかし、母親がそのときに流行している風邪への免疫をもっていない場合、新生児であってもその風邪に感染して、しかも重症化する可能性があります。そのため、新生児期から風邪予防を万全に行う必要があります。

新生児が風邪にかかった時の対応

生後6ヶ月を過ぎた赤ちゃんの場合、風邪の症状があっても母乳やミルクを機嫌よく飲んでいるようであれば、しばらく様子を見ていても大丈夫とされています。しかし、新生児や生後1~2ケ月の赤ちゃんの場合は、症状が軽くても、急激に悪化する可能性があるため、注意が必要になります。

もし38度以上の熱があったり、咳が出ていたりするようならば、できるだけ早く病院で診てもらうようにしましょう。

家でもできる対応の仕方を紹介します。少しでも早く風邪がよくなるようにしてあげましょう。

①発熱

熱が出始めた時には、1枚多く着せてあげて寒くないようにします。ただし、背中などを触って汗をかいているようなら、肌着を取り替えて1枚薄着にさせます。着るもので体温を調節してあげましょう。

また、熱が出ると脱水症状が心配されますので、白湯などを飲めるだけ飲ませましょう。ただし、無理やり飲ませる必要はありません。

熱を下げるために解熱剤を使う方が多いですが、解熱剤は病気を治す薬ではありませんので、解熱剤を使う前に医師に確認してから使うようにしましょう。熱冷却シートはおでこからずれにくいので非常に便利ですが、赤ちゃんの鼻や口をふさぐ危険性がありますので注意して使いましょう。

②鼻水・鼻づまり

赤ちゃんは鼻をかむことができません。鼻水吸い取り器で吸ってあげるといいでしょう。例えば、チューブ式のものは、鼻の穴に入れてチューブの先を吸って鼻水を取ります。ポンプ式のものは、指で押して鼻に入れて指の力を抜くようにすると鼻水が取れます。

道具がない場合は、口で吸うという方法もあります。赤ちゃんの鼻をお母さんの口で覆うようにして優しく吸うとすんなり取れます。これなら、痛がることがありません。

加湿器などで湿度を保つようにすると、鼻づまりを緩和することができます。また、鼻水が出ている時には水分が失われますので、こまめに水分補給をさせるようにしましょう。

③咳が出る

咳が出ている時には、咳を止めるために抱きあげて背中を軽くたたいたり、身体を立てて抱っこをしたりするいいでしょう。また、咳がひどいときには、背中をさすったり軽く叩いたりしてあげましょう。

呼吸を楽に眠らせるには、上半身を少し起こすと、喉に痰が絡みにくくなります。上半身を起こすには、クッションやバスタオルを背中に挟むといいです。

咳が出ている場合にも、加湿と水分補給が大切です。冷たいものは咳が出やすくなりますので、常温のものを飲ませるようにしましょう。

母親が風邪をひいている時の授乳

母乳の中にはウイルスに対する抵抗力を高める成分が含まれています。そのため、母親が風邪をひいている時でも母乳を積極的に与えれば、その分だけ赤ちゃんにも抵抗力が付きます。

なお、市販されている風邪薬には、母乳を通して赤ちゃんに影響を与えるようなことは少ないと言われています。病院で処方してもらう場合には、必ず授乳中であることをきちんと伝えるようにしましょう。

新生児の風邪の予防法

人ごみを避け、室温と湿度を適切に保つようにしましょう。室温は18~20℃、湿度は70%前後がいいとされています。特に室内の乾燥は大敵です。また、赤ちゃんに接する機会の多い家族が、風邪にかからないようにすることが大切です。

まとめ:新生児にも風邪予防が必要

新生児にもある程度の免疫がありますが、全く風邪をひかないというわけではありません。場合によっては重症化することもありますので、加湿や温度管理をして風邪から赤ちゃんを守るようにしましょう。

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