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風邪をひくとむくみが起きる原因

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風邪をひいてマスクをしていると、顔にマスクのゴムの跡が付いているということがあります。これは、顔がむくんでいるということですが、風邪をひくとむくみが起きるのには原因があります。しかも、中には何らかの病気が原因でむくみが起きている場合もありますので、たかがむくみと油断できません。

そこで、風邪をひくとむくみが起きる原因を紹介します。風邪の時によくむくみが起きるという人は、当てはまるものがないか、チェックしてみてください。

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むくみが起きる仕組み

むくみのある女性

むくみは、腎臓の機能が落ちると起こります。腎臓は、体の老廃物を排泄したり、体内の水分や塩分のバランスを保ったり、血圧を調節するホルモンを分泌したりする働きを持っています。腎臓が体内の環境を一定に保つという働きを果たせなくなったり、働きが低下して体内の水分量や体液成分が調節できなくなったりして、むくんでしまうのです。

腎臓の働きが正常に行えるように、日頃から食生活や生活リズムに気を付けて過ごしたいですね。

飲んでいる風邪薬の副作用

むくみは、グリチルリチンという成分を含む薬を服用すると、副作用として起きることがあります。グリチルリチンは、抗炎症作用や解毒作用がありますので、風邪薬や胃腸薬などによく入っています。
また、副腎で作られるホルモンであるアルドステロンとよく似た働きをすると言われています。アルドステロンが分泌されると、尿の中にナトリウムが排出されにくくなり、カリウムの排出が多くなります。ナトリウムが体内に多くなると、ナトリウムの濃度を下げるために体内の水分量を増やすように働きかけられ、体内の水分過剰状態が起こってむくみが生じます。

むくみがひどいときには、リンパのマッサージや食生活を見直し、それでも治まらない場合は、医師に相談して薬を変えてもらう方がいいかもしれません。

風邪で肺の機能が弱くなる

風邪で肺の機能が弱くなることで、むくみが起こると東洋医学で考えられています。肺は、体の水分を全身の隅々まで行き届かせ、汗として体の外に排出する働きがあります。また、全身で代謝されて余った水分量をだんだん減らし、尿として膀胱まで下げるという働きもあります。つまり、肺が下方の腎臓に圧す力や体外に圧し出す力が正常であり、くしゃみやせきなど風邪の症状が現れると、上方に圧し出す力が働き、正常でなくなります。風邪の症状が出ている時は正常な機能が行われていないということで、むくみの症状が出るということなのです。

風邪の陰に隠れている病気がある

風邪は万病の元とよく言われますが、風邪の症状の後にむくみが出た場合には、怖い病気が隠れていることがありますので、すぐに受診することをおすすめします。例えば、次のような病気が潜んでいる場合があります。

①急性腎炎

腎炎は、溶連菌などの細菌やウイルスの感染が原因で起こります。扁桃炎や咽頭炎を発症している時には、複雑な免疫現象がゆっくりと進行し、やがて腎炎が起こるということなのです。風邪が治ってしばらくたってから、急に尿の量が減っている、朝起きた時にまぶたが腫れぼったく顔がむくんでいるということが起こったら、急性腎炎の可能性が考えられます。急性腎炎によるむくみは、腎性のむくみの代表であり、全身がむくみますが、特に顔がむくんだ場合には腎臓の病気の疑いが高いです。

腎炎と診断されると、安静と食事療法を中心とした治療を受けます。

②急性心膜炎

風邪のときに全身にむくみが起こり、立っている時には足、寝ているときには背中がむくむというように、体勢とむくむ位置が関係している場合は、「うっ血性心不全」や「急性心膜炎」、「急性内膜炎」などの疑いがあります。

特に、急性心膜炎では、発熱と胸痛が現れることが多く、それほどひどくないと風邪と見分けが付きません。胸痛は、首や左肩、胃の辺りに痛みが移り、呼吸や咳、姿勢などによって痛みの程度が変わることがあります。

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まとめ:風邪の時のむくみには病気が隠れている可能性がある

風邪でむくみが起こる理由としては、風邪薬の副作用や肺の機能が弱くなっていること、急性腎炎や急性心膜炎などの怖い病気が隠れているということが考えられます。風邪が治ってもむくみがひどいという場合には、別の病気の可能性がありますので、受診をおすすめします。

風邪でむくみが起こらないようにするには、風邪をひかないように免疫力を高めておくことが大切です。特に、急性腎炎は風邪や扁桃炎の後に起こることが多いですから、できるだけかからないようにしましょう。風邪予防のためのうがい・手洗いをしっかりして、風邪だけでなくむくみも予防しましょう。

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