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風邪でマスクをつけて咳をする男
風邪でマスクをつけて咳をする男

風邪だけじゃない!体調不良と声の不調が重なる3つの原因

風邪の男

風邪をひいて声がかすれたり出なくなったことはありませんか。声がかすれると言いたい事も言えずにもどかしい気持ちになりますね。うまくコミュニケーションもとれないため、日常生活に支障をきたします。

こんなときは風邪を早く治そうと風邪薬を飲んだり休養をとったりしがちです。それも方法のひとつではありますが、風邪で声が出なくなる原因はウイルスや細菌だけではありません。

声が枯れたり出ないことをただの風邪だと放っておくことは、のどの異変を慢性化する危険性もはらんでいます。そこで、本記事では、風邪と声が出なくなることとの関係と声に異常が出る3つの原因をご紹介していきます。

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風邪で声が出なくなる原因

風邪の男

風邪をひいて声がかすれたり出なくなる経験をしたことのある人は多いでしょう。そのため、「風邪が治る=声が治る」と思っている人も多いのではないでしょうか。しかし、声が出なくなる原因は風邪によるものから扁桃炎、咽喉頭炎、ぜんそく、声帯ポリープ、悪性腫瘍、神経系や脳の疾患など多岐に渡ります。

その中でも特に風邪のような症状と声がれに関しては下記のような3つの原因が考えられます。風邪のような症状に合わせて声に異常を感じる場合、原因に合わせた対処が必要となります。

  • ウイルスや細菌などの刺激
  • アレルギー
  • 自律神経

この3つは対処法も異なりますので、それぞれに分けてみていきましょう。

声の異常の原因①ウイルスや細菌などの刺激

風邪による声がれの代表的なもので「急性咽頭炎」といいます。ウイルスや細菌により、喉の粘膜が炎症をおこしはれてしまい、声を出すときにぴったりと合う声帯が合わなくなり声に異常が出ます。

風邪のウイルスや細菌以外にも汚れた空気の刺激などでも声帯に異常がおこります。急性咽頭炎は一時的なものでしばらくすると治まりますが、急性咽頭炎を繰り返しおこしたり、タバコや汚れた空気を吸い続けていると慢性化して声の異常が治りにくくなります。

病院ではうがいやトローチで喉を清潔にしたり、抗炎症薬を服用するなどの対処がとられます。細菌が原因のときは抗生物質を使うこともあります。家庭では、加湿器を使う、室内でもマスクをするといった喉の保湿や、のど飴を舐める、刺激物を避けるといった方法がとられています。

声の異常の原因②アレルギー

鼻水や咳が風邪だと思っていたら、実は違っていたというケースもあります。花粉症といったアレルギー反応によって声帯がむくみ、声帯が異常をおこしやすい環境になるのです。

突然声がかすれる、しわがれるなどの症状がおこるときは、負担のかかった声帯に瘤ができているのかもしれません。声帯に腫瘍ができる「声帯ポリープ」や、結節という小さな瘤ができる「声帯結節」は、歌手や教師などの日常的によく声を出す人に多い疾患です。

アレルギー症状を抑える薬を使い、負担を軽減しましょう。また、乾燥対策やタバコを控える、なるべく大きな声を出さないようにするなどといった喉を休めることが大切です。長期間治らなかったり、瘤が治らないときには切除手術をすることもあります。

声帯ポリープや声帯結節の瘤は良性のため、悪性のガンに変わることはありません。しかし、きちんとした診断がないと悪性か良性かはわかりませんし、脳や神経などから来る異常の可能性もあるので、長期間声の異常が治らないようなら病院で診断を受けましょう。

声の異常の原因③自律神経

普段意識していないストレスが声の異常となっておこることもあります。病院へ行っても大きな炎症もなく、薬を飲んでも治らないというのであれば心因性のものかもしれません。大きなショックを受けた後や、常に精神的に抑圧を感じていたり、葛藤しやすい人がなりやすいと言われています。

諸説ありますが、ストレスで交感神経が優位に働き続けることで、副交感神経が機能低下し、喉の筋肉がうまく働かなくなるのではないかともいわれています。自律神経の乱れにより体温調整がうまくいかずに微熱が出たり、動悸や過呼吸といった症状が出ることもあります。風邪のような倦怠感や声の異常を感じて耳鼻科や内科を受診しても、異常がないと言われる人もいるようです。

心因性の場合、ストレス対策が重要です。まずはゆっくりと休養を取りましょう。美味しいものを食べたり、散歩をしたり、軽い運動をしたりするのもいいのではないでしょうか。病院では、抗不安剤を処方したり、精神分析療法などで治療をしていきます。

まとめ:風邪で声がおかしいと感じたら

ここまでで風邪のような症状と声の異変の関係についてご紹介してきました。風邪のような症状と声の関係は簡単なようで複雑に絡み合っています。

風邪と一言でいっても症状は様々です。咳が出る人も鼻が出る人もいるでしょうし、熱が出る人や倦怠感が続く人もいるのではないでしょうか。それらを全部一緒にして風邪と判断するのは早急です。風邪以外にも何か原因がないかを一度振り返ってみましょう。

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