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風邪をひいている女性
風邪をひいている女性

知って予防しよう、風邪のウィルスの主な感染経路3つと特徴

風邪の女性

寒くて空気の乾燥しているこの時期は気がつくと喉がイガイガしている事がありますね。

手洗いやうがいである程度予防できる風邪ですが、どのような感染経路で風邪のウィルスは私たちの体に入り込んでくるのでしょうか?

風邪の予防の為にも感染経路を良く知り、効果的に風邪を予防しましょう。

また感染経路だけでなく風邪のウィルスの特徴をよく知っておくと風邪の予防や風邪をひいてしまった時の対処もしやすくなります。

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風邪ウィルスの主な感染経路3つ

風邪をはじめとして様々な病原体の感染経路は主に以下の3つです。

  • 空気感染
  • 飛沫感染
  • 接触感染

感染経路1、空気感染

風邪の女性

空気感染とはその名の通り空気中に漂うウィルスを吸い込む事によって感染することです。

通常の風邪であれば空気感染の可能性はほぼ無いと考えられていますが、長時間換気をしていない部屋、空調設備の行き届いていないオフィスなどに保菌者がいる場合などは可能性が無いとも言い切れません。

まめな換気を心がけましょう。

感染経路2、飛沫感染

空気感染に近い感染経路ですが、保菌者のくしゃみや咳などで飛沫した病原体を吸い込む事によって感染します、保菌者から放たれた病原体を含む飛沫は換気のあまい室内等では2~3時間空気中を漂うといいます。

保菌者がくしゃみや咳をした時に近くに居れば当然感染の確率も高くなります。家族や同僚など身近な人が風邪をひいていると判っている時はマスクの着用を心がけましょう。

感染経路3、接触感染

保菌者と直接的または間接的に接触する事によって感染します。患者が触れた物に病原体が付着して、あとからそれに触れる事によっても感染の可能性があります。

身の回りに風邪をひいている人が居ない場合でも公共の物など不特定多数の人が触れる可能性のある物に病原体が付着している可能性があります。ウィルスは直接口に入らなくても目の粘膜などあらゆる所から体内に侵入可能ですのでこまめに手洗いをする事で風邪を予防しましょう。

風邪の原因の約40%を占めるライノウィルス

一言で風邪と言っても実は様々なウィルスが存在します、そのようなウィルスたちが私たちにもたらす疾病を総称して風邪と呼んでいます。

風邪の原因となるウィルスの40パーセントを占めるのがライノウィルスと呼ばれるウィルスですが他にも様々なウィルスが存在します。

  • ライノウィルス
  • コロナウィルス
  • アデノウィルス
  • エンテロウィルス
  • RSウィルス
  • パラインフルエンザウィルス

ライノウィルス

主に鼻風邪を引き起こすウィルスで風邪の原因の30~40%を占め、秋や春に流行しやすい。

コロナウィルス

ライノウィルスの次に多く、冬場に流行しやすいウィルスで喉や鼻の炎症を起こしやすいウィルス。

アデノウィルス

冬から夏と年間を通じて多いウィルスで咽頭炎や気管支炎を起こしやすいウィルス。

エンテロウィルス

夏に流行しやすいウィルス、風邪の症状の他に下痢を起こす事もある。

RSウィルス

年間を通じて感染の可能性のあるウィルス、乳幼児に感染すると気管支炎や肺炎を起こす可能性があるので注意。

パラインフルエンザウィルス

秋に流行する型と春から夏にかけて流行する型があり、子供に感染すると大人よりも症状が重い為に注意が必要。

何故冬になると流行りやすいのか?

風邪はウィルスによって引き起こされる呼吸器系の病気の総称ですが、極度に乾燥した状態だと私たちの鼻や喉の粘膜は正常に機能しなくなり、その免疫力も低下します。

また風邪のウィルスは湿度の高い状態だと長時間空気中に漂わずに地面に落ちやすい為に夏は冬よりも風邪のウィルスの感染力が落ちるといわれています。

マスクや手洗いで感染経路をなるべく断つと同時に加湿器で部屋の湿度をある程度の高さに保つ事によって、鼻や喉の粘膜の機能を高め、風邪のウィルスに対する抵抗力を高める事が出来ます。

十分な睡眠と栄養で免疫力を高める

感染経路の遮断も大切ですが風邪のウィルスはこの時期いたる所から私たちの体内に親友を試みます、十分な睡眠と食事による栄養補給でウィルスに対する免疫力を日頃から高めておきましょう。

また適度な運動も免疫力を高めるのに効果があります。

紅茶でうがいをすると更に風邪を予防出来る?

実は紅茶にはとても強い殺菌力があります、出がらしのティーパック等から煎れた薄い紅茶でも十分に効果があるので、紅茶うがいで風邪を更に予防してみてはいかがでしょうか。

また紅茶以外にも、はちみつなど殺菌力の高い食品は沢山あります。これらの食品を摂る事によっても効果的に風邪を予防する事が出来ます。

感染経路を断ち免疫力を高め、殺菌効果の高い食事やうがいでこの冬の風邪を予防しましょう。

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風邪の主な感染経路3つと特徴のまとめ

風邪の感染経路は主に空気感染、飛沫感染、接触感染の3つ。
風邪のウィルスには様々な週類があるが、その40%を占めるのがライノウィルス。
加湿器で湿度を上げることで呼吸器の粘膜の働きを正常に保ち風邪の予防に役立てよう。

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Check Also

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風邪の症状が辛くて寝れない時の対処法

風邪を早く治したいと思って早め …

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