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風邪で寝込む女性
風邪で寝込む女性

症状からみる、風邪とインフルエンザの違いを見分ける方法

インフルエンザの女性

冬に気をつけたい病気といえば、インフルエンザ。一般的な風邪とどう違うのか、区別がしにくいものです。しかし、その区別を正確にしないと、どの後の対処法を誤ってしまう可能性があります。

インフルエンザなのに一般的な風邪だと思って生活を続けていくと、周囲の人に感染させたり、本人も合併症を引き起こすおそれもあります。

インフルエンザなのか、一般的な風邪なのかをきちんと把握することは、その後問題を回避することにもつながります。

本記事では、インフルエンザなのか一般的な風邪なのか、それぞれの症状、特に似ている症状9つの内容をわかりやすく、説明していきます。きっと、判断に迷った時に役に立つはずです。是非、もしもの時のために、頭に入れておきましょう。

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風邪とインフルエンザ、症状の違い

頭痛や鼻水、発熱など症状は似たものが多いですが、特徴的な違いがあります。それぞれの症状を9つづつ見てみましょう。

一般的な風邪の症状

  • 発熱 : 微熱〜37度程度
  • 主な症状 : 上気道症状
  • 悪寒 : 弱い
  • 発病 : ゆっくり
  • せき : 軽く出る
  • 頭痛 : 軽い
  • 鼻水 : ひきはじめに出る
  • 筋肉関節痛: 軽い
  • 合併症: 少ない

ちょっと体調がすぐれない、軽い頭痛がする、でも完全に風邪をひいたと言い切れないかんじが、この部類と言えるでしょう。

インフルエンザの症状

  • 発熱 : 38〜40度の高熱
  • 主な症状 : 発熱、筋肉痛
  • 悪寒 : 強い
  • 発病 : 急激
  • せき : たくさん出る
  • 頭痛 : 軽い
  • 鼻水 : 後からに出る
  • 筋肉関節痛: 強い
  • 合併症: 気管支炎、肺炎など

インフルエンザは、鼻水以外どの症状も急激に来ることが多いようです。両者における発熱の体温は、厳密な基準ではありません。それまで体調に変化がなかったのに突然38度くらいの熱が出たら、インフルエンザと疑ってよいでしょう。

発症の原因

一般的な風邪は、「かんぼう」とも呼ばれ、 「感冒」と「寒冒」があります。

かんぼうの種類

  • 感冒 病原体による感染で風邪をひく
  • 寒冒 急激な温度変化や疲れなどから風邪をひく

「かんぼう」は病原体以外にも免疫力の低下などからも発症するため、年中かかる可能性があります。

インフルエンザの場合は、インフルエンザウイルスの感染が原因です。インフルエンザウイルス種類がいくつかあるものの、例年11月から1〜3月までの間しか活動できません。
なので、活動期以外で風邪の症状が出たら、一般的な風邪(かんぼう)ということになります。

見極めが難しい場合

風邪の女性

とはいうものの、インフルエンザの季節で、発熱が高熱といえるか微妙な場合など、区別しにくいこともあります。

インフルエンザはウイルス退治のために、急激に体温が上がります。高熱を発することにより一気にウイルスを死滅させるので、比較的症状が収まるのは早いです。

しかし、重めの一般的な風邪は、インフルエンザほど高熱にならないために、症状が落ち着くまで時間がかかる傾向があります。

対処法

両者の特徴や、見極め方がわかっても、どうしてもわからない時は、病院へ行きましょう。きっとすぐに診断してくれるはずです。

まとめ

一般的な風邪である「かんぼう」とインフルエンザの違いを見極めるための方法と、その原因を紹介してきました。最後に要点をまとめておきましょう。

見極めるために注意したいこと

  • 症状は似ているが、その内容に違いがある
  • 「風邪かな」と思っても、急な高熱の場合はインフルエンザだと疑う
  • 判断に迷う時は、病院へ行く
発症原因

  • 感冒 病原体による感染
  • 寒冒 急激な温度変化や疲れ
  • インフルエンザ インフルエンザウイルス

インフルエンザウイルスが活動していない時期に、インフルエンザにかかることはありません。

病気の原因を知り、予防対策を立て、実行しましょう。それでもかかってしまった時は、正しく見極めて対処しましょう。

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Check Also

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風邪の症状が辛くて寝れない時の対処法

風邪を早く治したいと思って早め …

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