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風邪の女性
風邪の女性

風邪をひいてしまう原因と分析

風邪の女性

風邪は2つの要素・原因の重なり合いによって発症するということができます。風邪を予防するためには、風邪の原因となる2つの要素についてしっかりと対応をすることが大切です。本稿では風邪の原因と対策について分析・ポイントをまとめています。

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風邪発症は2つの原因の重なり合いに

咳する女性

風邪は年間、平均して3回から4回程度の割合で引いてしまうと言われます。風邪をひいてしまう原因やそのメカニズムはどのようになっているのでしょうか。

風邪は2つの原因が重なって発症するというメカニズムになっています。それはウィルスへの感染と免疫力の低下という2つの原因です。

風邪の原因となるものは風邪のウィルスです。風邪のウィルスに感染することが風邪発症の第一の原因となります。風邪のウィルスは数百種類あると言われ、空気中を浮遊し人体に感染します。(なお、人体だけではなく動物などにも風邪のウィルスは感染し、動物の風邪の原因となります)ごくまれに細菌(クラミジア)などが風邪の感染原因となることもありえます。しかし、実際には風邪の原因のほとんどは、ウィルスからの感染が原因となっています。

このように風邪を発症する原因の第一段階は風邪のウィルスへの感染ということになります。

しかし、風邪のウィルスに感染したとしても全ての方が風邪を発症するわけではありません。風邪が発症してしまう場合には、もうひとつの原因として身体の免疫力・抵抗力の低下ということが原因となります。

免疫力・抵抗力は体に入ってきた風邪のウィルスを排除します。しかし、疲労や精神的なストレスがあると免疫力や抵抗力が低下してしまい、風邪のウィルスを排除することができなくなってしまいます。

風邪のウィルスが身体にいるのに、免疫等の作用によってウィルスを排除することができない時に風邪が発症してしまうことになります。

このように、風邪発症の原因は風邪のウイルスへの感染と免疫力・抵抗力の低下という2つの原因が重なった時に発症することになります。

以下ではこの2つの原因についてより詳しく見ていくことにしましょう。

風邪発症の原因1-風邪のウィルスへの感染

このように風邪のウィルスへの感染が風邪発症の第一の原因ということになります。では、風邪のウィルスはどこにいて、一体どのようにして身体に感染してくるのでしょうか、

まず、風邪のウィルスが存在する場所は、広く言えばこの大気中すべてということになります。風邪のウィルスは空気中を浮遊し、「感染先を探している」という状態ですので、この大気中がそのまま風邪のウィルスが存在している場所ということになります。

そのため、極論すれば、空気が存在しているところにいる以上、風邪の原因となるウィルスは常に存在しているということになりえます。ただ、実際に風邪のウィルスが活発に活動するのは、寒くて乾燥している空気中です。このような場所では風邪の原因となるウィルスは非常に活発に活動し感染先を探しています。このために、寒くて乾燥した冬などには特に風邪が流行するということになります。

風邪の原因となるウィルスに感染しないようにするためには、マスクをしたりうがい・手洗いをすることでウィルスをしっかりとガードしたり、付着したウィルスを洗い流すことがとても大切な対策となります。

風邪発症の原因2-免疫力の低下の原因

風邪発症の原因の第二段階は、風邪のウィルスに感染した後に体の抵抗力・免疫力が低下しており、風邪のウィルスを除去することができないということに求められます。

私たちの体では風邪のウィルスなどの異物が体に侵入してくるとそれを除去しようとする免疫の作用が生じます。しかし、ストレスや疲労がたまっているとこの免疫が十分に作用せずに、風邪のウィルスを除去することができません。そして風邪の発祥ということになってしまいます。

このことを逆に考えれば、免疫力の低下の原因となるストレスや身体の疲労などを軽減することで風邪に対して強い抵抗力を持った体を作ることができるということになります。

そして体の免疫力を高めるためには、十分な栄養と睡眠をとること、つまり規則正しい生活を送るという基本的なことをすることが非常に重要です。またよく言われますようにビタミンCやビタミンAなどが風邪に強い体を作る要素となります。

まとめ:風邪の原因とその対策のまとめ

以上、本文で述べました風邪の原因とその対策をまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • 風邪は2つの要素が原因となって生じます。つまり、風邪のウィルスへの感染と抵抗力の低下によって風邪のウィルスを除去することができないということが風邪発症の原因となります
  • 風邪の原因のうち、風邪のウィルスへの感染は、冷たく乾燥した環境で起こりやすくなります。そのため、特に冬などはうがい・手洗い・マスク着用などが重要となります
  • 風邪の原因のうち、免疫力の低下はストレスや身体の疲労などが原因となります。免疫力を高めるためには栄養の摂取と十分な睡眠などの規則正しい生活をするという基本的なことがとても大切となります

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