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赤ちゃん
赤ちゃん

3か月未満の赤ちゃんのその症状、本当に風邪?病気を見落とさないために

赤子

産まれたばかりの赤ちゃん、小さくてか弱くて本当にかわいくて守りたくなる存在ですね。パパ・ママは赤ちゃんの表情、しぐさに一喜一憂しながら毎日を過ごされているのではないでしょうか?

そんな赤ちゃんが咳やおう吐といった風邪のような症状をあらわしたとき、どのように対処したらよいでしょうか?「ただの風邪で病院に連れて行くのは他の病気がうつるからよくない」という考え方もあるでしょう。でも、赤ちゃんの風邪のような症状には、重大な病気が隠れている場合もあります。

赤ちゃんは言葉で自分の状態をパパ・ママに伝えることができません。パパ・ママがこのようなことを知っておくことで、赤ちゃんを病気から救ってあげることができるのです。本記事では、赤ちゃんの風邪のような症状に隠されている病気についてご紹介します。

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赤ちゃんの症状から考えられる病気

病院

赤ちゃん(特に3か月未満)に、発熱、せき、嘔吐など、一見風邪のような症状が現れた場合、ただの風邪と油断せずに赤ちゃんの症状をよく観察してください。以下のような症状がみられる場合には、病院を受診することをおすすめします。

赤ちゃんの風邪のような症状その1:発熱

赤ちゃんの発熱は、ウイルスや細菌に対する防御反応が身体のなかでおこっているために現れたり、室温の高さや水分不足で現れたりすることもよくあります。赤ちゃんが熱を出した場合はまず次のような対処を取ります。

  • 室温が暑すぎないか、服の着せ過ぎはないか、確認する
  • 水分を取らせる
  • 機嫌がよいか、母乳やミルクは良く飲むか観察する

このような対処で、赤ちゃんが機嫌よく過ごしているようなら、慌てて病院にいく必要はありません。

しかし、次のような症状がある場合は、夜間や休日でも急いで病院を受診してください。
【病院を受診すべき赤ちゃんの症状】

  • 痙攣が5分以上、または何度も起こる
  • ぐったりとして意識がはっきりしない
  • 顔色が悪く、手足が冷たい
  • 呼吸が荒い
  • 嘔吐や下痢がひどく、水分を受け付けない

これは、赤ちゃんの発熱には単なる風邪だけではなく、以下のような病気が隠れている場合があるためです。
【赤ちゃんの発熱に隠されている病気】

  • 肺炎
  • 髄膜炎
  • 敗血症
  • 尿路感染症

赤ちゃんの風邪のような症状その2:咳

咳は、体に入った異物を体外に追い出そうとする人間の防御反応のひとつです。特に赤ちゃんは鼻や喉などの粘膜が敏感で咳が出やすいため、一時的に激しい咳をしていてもその後落ち着くようであれば、まず心配はいりません。

しかし、赤ちゃんは病気の進行が早いため、ただの咳だと思って油断しているうちに気管支炎や肺炎、百日咳といった病気に進行してしまう場合があります。赤ちゃんが次のような症状を表している場合は、急いで病院を受診してください。
【病院を受診すべき赤ちゃんの症状】

  • 何度も激しく咳き込む
  • 息が荒い、または息が止まることがある
  • あえぐような咳をする
  • 顔色が悪い
  • 唇や指先が紫色になっている

赤ちゃんの風邪のような症状その3:嘔吐

赤ちゃんの胃や食道はまだ未熟な状態です。母乳やミルクを飲んだ後にすぐに寝かせたり、飲み過ぎだったり、一緒に空気を飲み込んでしまったり、といった場合に吐くことがありますが、これは心配のない状況です。

反対に赤ちゃんの嘔吐には以下のような病気が隠されている場合もありますので、注意が必要です。

【幽門狭窄症】
生後2~3週間ごろから、母乳やミルクを吐き始め、噴水のように吐くようになります。これは胃の出口と十二指腸がつながる幽門の筋肉が暑くなり、ミルクなどの通りが悪くなる病気で、日本人の1万人に5~7人が発症すると言われています。
この病気の赤ちゃんは、栄養、水分が十分に摂れないため、体重が少しずつ減り、脱水状態となってしまいます。このような場合は、1か月健診を待たずに早めに病院を受診しましょう。主な治療方法は手術となりますが、胃にチューブを入れてミルクを補充する、という方法もあります。

【腸重積】
生後3、4か月~1歳ぐらいに起こりやすい、腸の一部が腸の中に潜り込んでしまう病気です。
赤ちゃんは機嫌が悪くなったり激しく泣いていたりしたかと思うと、なにごともなかったかのように機嫌がよくなり、5~15分くらいするとまた不機嫌になる、ということを繰り返します。この繰り返しが腸重積を見つけるサインともなります。また、腸重積は血便が出ることもあります。
このような症状が見られる場合は、夜間・休日でも急いで病院へ行きます。なぜなら腸重積は早期治療がとても大切な病気だからです。発症から24時間以内に対処できればほとんどが治りますが、対処が遅れると腸が壊死を起こしてしまいます。

まとめ:風邪と思いこまずに、赤ちゃんの症状をよく観察することが大切

赤ちゃんの発熱や咳といった風邪のような症状には、思いがけない重い病気が隠されている場合があります。ここでもう一度、風邪のような症状に隠された病気をまとめてみましょう。
【赤ちゃんの風邪のような症状に隠されている病気】

  • 発熱:肺炎、髄膜炎、敗血症、尿路感染症など
  • 咳:気管支炎、肺炎、百日咳など
  • 嘔吐:幽門狭窄症、腸重積など

赤ちゃんは、ママのおなかという安全な環境から外に出てきたばかりのとてもかよわい存在です。赤ちゃんのことを一番理解してあげられるのは、いつも一緒にいるパパ・ママですね。赤ちゃんの健康を守るために、いざというときにすぐに対処できるように知識を身につけておくことが大切です。本記事が少しでもお役に立てば幸いです。

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Check Also

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風邪をひいた赤ちゃんの咳が激しいときの3つの対処方法

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