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医者、男
医者、男

最新の技術が次々と登場する花粉症治療法

医師

花粉症の季節が近づいて来ました。2月は雪、3月は花粉といわれるぐらいにもはや風物詩となった花粉症ですが、完全な治療法は未だ登場しておらず、すっかり治療を諦めてしまった方も少なくないのではないでしょうか。

しかしながら、花粉症治療の最前線ではいまも新しい花粉症治療法が生み出されています。治療の方法によっては、辛かった花粉症が大幅に軽減できたり、安価で痛みもない治療が可能であったりと多くのメリットがあります。

この記事では、花粉症治療の最前線を追いながら、あなたに合うかもしれない花粉症治療法についてご紹介致します。

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花粉症治療法の最前線

研究医

花粉症は1940年代ごろから存在していたと言われ1960年代に発見されたとされ、それから長い間様々な花粉症対策が練られてきました。環境省が花粉症対策をずっとしていましたし、花粉症はもはや国民病の一つとして市民権を得ています。

花粉症は花粉をアレルゲンとして起こるアレルギー症状の総称です。鼻がムズムズする、くしゃみがでる。目が痛むなどの症状を緩和させるために様々な薬が開発されてもいます。

そんな中以下のような治療法が、症状緩和に効果があるとされています。まずは薬物療法です。

初期療法

初期療法は花粉症をもっている方が、花粉症のシーズンになる前から始める治療法です。花粉の飛散量が爆発的に増加するシーズンでも症状をコントロールしやすいため、シーズンの症状を軽くすることができます。

初期療法は、まずは抗ヒスタミン剤剤などを症状が出る前から摂取して、症状が重たくなってきたら「導入療法」へと移行します。

導入療法

症状が重くなる前の初期療法の一つで、症状が強くなってから始める治療です。経口ステロイド薬の一時的な服用や、鼻噴霧用ステロイド薬(点鼻薬)などをつかって、症状をやわらげます。効果が高い反面、医師の診断が必要な場合もあります。症状がひどい場合にはお医者様にいきましょう。

ほかに、血管収縮剤や抗ロイコトリエン薬、メディエーター遊離抑制剤などを服用します。

アレルゲン免疫治療

アレルゲン免疫治療は、花粉症の原因となる抗原をゆっくり体内に九州させることで、抗原に対する反応を弱めていきます。これは注射や舌の下におく薬などで抗原を吸収させながら少しずつ免疫力を高めていくものです。2年から3年の期間が必要ですが、唯一アレルギーを治す可能性がある治療法です。約70%に有効だとされていますが、効果がなかったり、副作用がある場合もあります。

治療にあたっては医師の診断と長期の診断経過が必要です。

花粉症治療器による治療

1980年代ごろから注目を集めているのが「花粉症治療器」による治療です。これは、バイオネットと呼ばれるイスラエル生まれの花粉症治療器を使った治療で、副作用がなく、子供も使える治療法としてしられています。鼻に強い光を放つLEDを差し込み、粘膜の反応を光で鈍くさせるものです。

医療用の機器もありますが、最先端治療のため治療を受けられる病院が限られている上、保険も聞きません。2から3週間程度の治療期間が必要ですので10万円近くかかってしまいます。

レーザー治療

鼻の粘膜をレーザーで焼く治療法です。保険が効くため、7000円程度で受けられます(別途診療費が必要)。レーザーは麻酔をかけて行うため痛みはほとんどありません。最初の二週間は鼻に違和感があったりかさぶたが出たりしますが、その後は花粉症などによる鼻のムズムズやくしゃみは大幅に減るのです。1980年代から行われている治療で、日本でも多くの人が受けています。

効果は2年から3年程度ですが副作用はほとんど報告されていません。

花粉症治療の注意点

以上のように様々な花粉症治療法があるのですが、万能薬はありません。誰にでも効果がある花粉症治療の方法はほとんどなく、また自分にあった治療法を検討する必要があります。

自分にあった治療方法を探るためには、まずは自分の花粉症の症状をよく把握する必要があるでしょう。レーザー治療や花粉症治療器の治療は鼻からくる花粉症には効果がありますが、其れ以外にはあまり効果がありません。

通常の医薬品、市販薬であっても花粉症に効果がある場合もありますし、医薬品のものとほとんど遜色ない成分が配合されていることが多くあります。

まとめ:花粉症治療法は自分にあったものを

花粉症治療には、薬物治療、初期療法、導入療法などがあります。またレーザー治療に花粉症治療器による治療など、光をつかった最先端の治療法も開発されています。

保険が効くものも効かないものもあります。効果も人それぞれのようなので、自分にあった治療法を探さないといけません。しかし、初期療法は一定の効果が見込める上に、本格的な花粉症シーズンになっても効果があるといいます。

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