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冬景色、鳥、木

自分にあった治療で花粉症を軽減しよう~花粉症の3つの治療方法

木

現在、日本人の約25%は花粉症であると言われています。花粉症による目のかゆみや鼻水、鼻づまりなどの症状にお悩みの方はたくさんいらっしゃるのではないでしょうか?

花粉症は、花粉に対する身体のアレルギー反応により引き起こされる症状です。このような花粉症には有効な治療方法がいくつかあります。

本記事では、花粉症の様々な治療方法をご紹介します。ご自分にあった治療方法を見つけて、つらい花粉症の時期を少しでも快適に過ごしましょう。

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花粉症のおこるしくみ

マッサージする女性

花粉症は、私たちの身体に異物が侵入したときに、これを排除しようとする働きが様々な症状として現れているものです。具体的にどのようなことが身体のなかでおこっているのか、みてみましょう。

  • 1.花粉(異物)が体内に侵入
  • 2.異物(アレルゲン)を排除するため、これと反応する物質=IgE抗体が体内に作られる
  • 3.再びアレルゲンが侵入すると、IgE抗体が鼻や目の粘膜にある肥満細胞の表面にある抗体と結合する
  • 4.肥満細胞から化学物質(ヒスタミンなど)が分泌され、くしゃみや鼻水、涙などでアレルゲンを体外に放出しようとする

このように、私たちを悩ませる花粉症の症状である鼻水や目のかゆみ、涙は、体内に侵入したアレルゲン(花粉)を体外に出そうとする身体の反応なのです。

それならば、花粉が体内に侵入したときのこのような反応がおこらないようにする、またはその反応を和らげることが、花粉症の治療方法につながるというわけですね。

では、そのような花粉症の治療方法を次にご紹介しましょう。

花粉症の治療方法

花粉症の治療方法には、大きく分けて、薬物療法アレルゲン免疫療法手術療法の三つがあります。

それではそれぞれの治療方法について、詳しくみてみましょう。

花粉症の治療方法その1:薬物療法

薬物療法とは、花粉症の症状を薬によって抑える治療方法です。この療法は、薬を服用するタイミングによりさらに、初期療法導入療法維持療法にわけられます。

【初期療法】
初期療法とは、花粉の飛びはじめる前、あるいは症状が軽いときから薬の使用を始める方法で、花粉の飛散量が多くなった時期でも症状をコントロールしやすく、そのシーズンの症状を軽く抑えることができる治療方法です。この治療方法により、「症状の出現を遅らせる」、「症状を軽くする」、「薬の量や使用回数を少なくする」といったことが可能となります。

毎年、花粉症の症状が中等症以上になる方におすすめの治療方法です。

【導入療法】
導入療法は、花粉症の症状が強く現れてから始める治療方法です。

【維持療法】
維持療法は、初期療法や導入療法で症状が抑えられたら、その状態を保つための治療方法です。花粉が飛散している間は、維持療法を続けるのがよいでしょう。

花粉症の治療に用いられる薬には以下のようなものがあります。

  • 抗ヒスタミン薬:肥満細胞の受容体に作用して、アレルギー反応を抑える作用がある。第一世代抗ヒスタミン薬には催眠作用などの副作用があるが、第二、第三世代では眠気などの中枢神経抑制作用などの副作用は少ない。
  • メディエーター遊離抑制薬:肥満細胞からヒスタミンなどのアレルギー物質が遊離していく状態を抑制する作用がある。
  • 抗ロイコトリエン薬:鼻粘膜にある腺にあるロイコトリエン受容体をブロックし、アレルゲンとの反応後に肥満細胞から遊離するロイコトリエンが、ロイコトリエン受容体を刺激することを防ぐ作用がある。
  • 血管収縮薬:鼻粘膜の血管を収縮させて、鼻づまりの原因である鼻粘膜の充血を取り除く作用がある。
  • ステロイド薬:鼻粘膜の炎症を引き起こす細胞に作用して、その数を減らしたり、炎症を起こすサイトカインの生産を抑制したりする効果がある

花粉症の治療方法その2:アレルゲン免疫療法

アレルゲン免疫療法は、アレルゲン(抗原)を少しずつ量を増やしながら体内に吸収させることで、身体の抗原に対する反応を弱めていく治療方法です。花粉症そのものを治療しようとする根治療法で2~3年という長期間の治療が必要となりますが、約70%が有効と考えられています。

このアレルゲン免疫療法には、以下のような治療方法があります。

  • 皮下免疫療法:抗原を注射する治療方法
  • 舌下免疫療法:舌の下の粘膜から抗原を吸収させる治療方法

花粉症の治療方法その3:手術療法

手術療法は、鼻の粘膜を切除して小さくする治療方法で、レーザー手術などでは入院をせずに外来で治療を行うことができます。比較的安全な治療方法ですが、粘膜は再生するので花粉症も再発すると言われています。

まとめ:花粉症は最適な治療方法で治しましょう

花粉症には様々な有効な治療方法があり、自分にあった治療方法を選択することで、つらい花粉の時期をより快適に過ごすことができるようになります。
【花粉症の治療方法】

  • 薬物療法
  • アレルゲン免疫療法
  • 手術療法

ここでご紹介した治療方法にはそれぞれに特徴がありますので、ご自分の症状や治療方法に期待する効果などに最も適した治療方法を選択し、有効な花粉症の治療にお役立てください。

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