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カルテを見る医師

病院で処方される花粉症の処方薬の特徴と種類

医師

花粉症に対しては薬を服用して対応をされるという方が多いと思われます。花粉症の薬のうち、医師が処方してくれるものを処方薬と言いますが、処方薬は現在、第二世代抗ヒスタミン薬と呼ばれるものが中心です。

また、一方でステロイドという強力な薬もあります。これらの病院で処方される花粉症の処方薬はどのような特徴があるのでしょうか。

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花粉症の薬の効果と市販薬・処方薬

花粉症の女性

花粉症対策の基本となるのは、やはり薬の服用ではないでしょうか。花粉症の症状を抑えるためには、例えば、マスクをしたり、花粉症に効果がある食べ物・飲み物を摂る(例えば、レンコン、ヨーグルト、べにふうき緑茶、甜茶など)などの方法が考えられますが、花粉症のメカニズムに沿って症状を抑える薬の服用がもっとも効率的です。

花粉症は体内で花粉というアレルギーのもと(アレルゲン)を排除しようとするヒスタミンという化学物質が分泌されることで発生します。この花粉症の症状発生プロセスをしっかりと分析して対処したものが花粉症の薬です。

花粉症の薬は、薬局などで購入することができる市販薬と病院で処方される処方薬とがあります。市販薬は購入が容易ですが、多くの方が自由に購入して利用することができるために副作用防止のため、効果を抑えている部分があります。一方で処方薬は医師がそれぞれの方の花粉症の症状に合わせて処方するものなので、効果は高いものとなります。

病院で待たなければならないなどの時間・手間ひまはかかってしまいますが、やはり花粉症に対して高い効能を求めるのであれば処方薬が効果的であるということができます。

処方薬が眠くなるというのはもはや過去の話?

花粉症の処方薬というと、まだまだ眠気が襲ってきてしまうというイメージをお持ちの方が多いといえます。しかし、現在の処方薬の中心は第二世代抗ヒスタミンというもので、眠気という副作用がほとんどないものとなっています。そのため、一般的に処方薬を服用することで眠気が生じるということは、ほとんどないというのが現在の状況です。

花粉症の処方薬が眠くなるという副作用があるというのは、いわば、「過去の話」ということができます。この意味で花粉症の処方薬は安心して服用することができるものとなったということができるでしょう。

特に症状がひどい方に処方・ステロイド

今述べましたように、現在の花粉症の処方薬の中心は、副作用が極めて少ない第二世代抗ヒスタミン薬となっていますので、眠気などの副作用は少ないものとなっています。

しかし、第二世代抗ヒスタミン薬の欠点・弱点として、花粉症に対してやや効果が弱い面があるということが挙げられます。そのため、花粉症の症状がひどい方に関しては処方薬として第二世代抗ヒスタミン薬では、くしゃみや目のかゆみなどをおさえる事ができないというデメリットがあることになります。

このような場合に処方される処方薬として、花粉症に対して「最強」の効果を持っている
のがステロイドです。特に、ステロイドが配合された内服薬であるセレスタミンは、花粉症に対して極めて強い効果があります。

このステロイドとは、人体の副腎皮質というところで分泌されるホルモンを人工的に作ったもので、鼻の粘膜・目の結膜の炎症を強力に抑えます。処方薬として処方される場合には、花粉症の症状がもっともひどい方に処方されます。

ただ、ステロイドは強力に花粉症に効果がある反面として、副作用が生じやすいという面があります。具体的には、身体のバランスが崩れたり、胃潰瘍を起こしたり、抑うつ症状が生じるなどの可能性があります。処方薬としてステロイドはよほどのケースでなければ処方しないという医師もいます。

このように、ステロイドは抗ヒスタミン薬に比べて高い効果の代わりに、副作用のリスクを伴うということができます。

その他、花粉症に対する処方薬としては抗アレルギー薬などもあります。処方薬の最大のメリットはこれらのさまざまなタイプの処方薬の中から医師がもっとも適切なものを選択して適量を処方してくれるという点にあるということができるでしょう。

また、処方薬以外にもステロイド注射などが実施されることもあります。

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まとめ:花粉症の処方薬のさまざまな種類と特徴

以上、本文で述べました花粉症の処方薬についての種類や特徴などについてポイントをまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • 花粉症に対する薬は、薬局などで購入することができる市販薬と医師が処方する処方薬とに分けることができます。処方薬は、一般に市販薬に比べて効果が高いものを処方してくれるということができます
  • 現在、処方薬の中心となっているのが第二世代抗ヒスタミン薬という薬です。第二世代抗ヒスタミン薬は眠くなるなどの副作用がほとんどなく安心して服用することが出来ることが特徴です
  • 花粉症の処方薬の中でもっとも効果が高いものがステロイドです。ステロイドは、花粉症の症状に対して非常に高い効果をもたらしますが、体調不良や胃潰瘍、抑うつなどの副作用が生じる可能性が高いというデメリットもあります   

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