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スギやヒノキの少ない北海道5月からのシラカバ花粉症

白樺

北海道に多く自生するシラカバの木、このシラカバの木から飛散する花粉がアレルゲンとなり引き起こすシラカバ花粉症。

本州以南では花粉症と言えばスギやヒノキですが、北海道での花粉症はシラカバによる物が多いのです。

また、シラカバ花粉症はその他のアレルギーを誘発しやすい事でも知られています。

シラカバ花粉症はどのような症状を引き起こすのでしょうか?

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カバノキ科の花粉症

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シラカバ花粉症の人はシラカバの木以外にもオオバヤシャブシやハンノキ、イチゴなどのカバノキ科の植物の花粉に反応してしまいます。

シラカバをはじめカバノキ科の植物は北海道以外にも自生しているので本州以南に住む方も注意が必要となります。

北海道におけるシラカバ花粉症のシーズンは5月の初旬から6月の下旬までです。この時期本州から九州にかけては梅雨の時期である為に、湿度が高く花粉の飛散量は少なくなりますが、北海道には梅雨が無いため、シラカバが開花するこの時期が花粉症シーズンのピークとなります。

シラカバ花粉症の特長

シラカバ花粉症もスギやヒノキの花粉症同様に、くしゃみ・鼻水・鼻づまり・目の痒みがおもな花粉症の症状です。しかし、シラカバ花粉症の特長として、患者の20%近くに口腔アレルギーの誘発がみられる点です。

この口腔アレルギーとは、特定の果実を食べた時に口の中が痒くなったり、腫れたりするアレルギーで、重症になると吐き気や呼吸困難などの症状がみられます。これは果物のたんぱく質とシラカバの花粉が非常に近い構造で出来ている為に起こってしまうアレルギーです。

リンゴ、モモ、さくらんぼ、カキ、キウイ、特バラ科の果物にアレルギーを起こしやすいと言われています。注意しましょう。

豆乳にも反応!?

シラカバ花粉症をはじめとするカバノキ科の植物に対するアレルギーを持っている方に、豆乳アレルギーが多い事が分かってきました。

カバノキ科の花粉症の人が豆乳を飲んで、同じく口腔アレルギーを引き起こしたり、くしゃみや鼻水が止まらなくなったという事例が報告されています。症状の重い人になると蕁麻疹や呼吸困難となり、意識障害を伴うアナフィラキシーショックで病院へ搬送された事例も報告されています。

カバノキ科の花粉症の人が豆乳にアレルギー反応を示す事は多くはありませんが、反応が出てしまうと症状が重いので注意が必要です。特にお子さんの場合は気をつけましょう。

シラカバ花粉症の対策

シラカバ花粉症へもスギの花粉やヒノキの花粉と同じ様に対処をしましょう。

症状の重い人は外出時のメガネやマスクは必需品だと思いますが、花粉症の対策は他にも沢山あります。

シーズン中は花粉の付きにくいナイロン素材の洋服を着て外出する事で洋服への花粉の付着を減らす事が出来ます。帰宅したら家の中に花粉を持ちこまないように配慮しましょう。玄関先で体や髪の毛に付いた花粉を払い落すのはもちろん、帰宅後はすぐに入浴をして体に付いた花粉を洗い落とすと良いでしょう。

室内では空気清浄機で部屋の空気を綺麗にすると同時に、加湿器で花粉が舞いにくい湿度を保っておくと良いでしょう。部屋はこまめに掃除機や濡れた雑巾などで花粉を掃除しておきましょう。部屋の換気は朝のうち、植物がまだ朝露で湿っている時間帯に行う事で花粉の室内侵入を防ぐ事ができます。

シーズン中の洗濯物は部屋干しにしましょう。

シラカバの木は晴れた温かい日ほど花粉を多く飛ばすので、天気予報で花粉の飛散量をチェックしましょう。

花粉症改善策

花粉症のアレルギー症状を改善していくには色々な方法が考案されています。自分にあった方法で体質改善を行い、アレルギーに強い体を作っていくのが根本からの改善策となります。

シーズン中の薬は手放せませんが、薬による副作用で倦怠感や眠気を感じたり、それによってストレスが溜まり自律神経失調症などに落ちいってしまうケースもあります。長期的にみても何らかの方法で花粉症の症状を緩和していきましょう。

ハーブティーやアロマオイル、食事療法など方法は様々です。

ヨーグルトは注目の食品です。ヨーグルトに限らず乳酸菌を多く含む発酵食品で腸内の環境を整える事はアレルギー体質改善に繋がります。他にもポリフェノールを多く含む食品に抗アレルギー作用があり、レンコンやじゃばらなどの食品が注目されています。

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5月からのシラカバ花粉症のまとめ

  • 北海道にはスギやヒノキが少ないが、5月から飛散の始まるシラカバ花粉症が問題。
  • シラカバ花粉症の人は果物に対して口腔アレルギーを併発することがある。
  • シラカバ花粉症の人の中には豆乳にアレルギー反応を示す人もいる。
  • 花粉症改善は根気よく長期的な食事療法などで体質の改善を。

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