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錠剤

花粉症に効く市販薬

赤白薬

花粉症のように薬で処置をすることができる疾患には様々な薬がありますが、近年ではインターネットやドラッグストアで気軽に購入することができるようになってきました。

医師に処方してもらう薬との違いは、その効果がどの程度なのか・どのような効果なのかどいう事を自分で知らなければならないという点が最も大きなところだと言えます。

今回は花粉症に効くと評判の市販薬についてその剤型ごとにその効果や副作用・用法などについて細かく紹介していきたいと思います。

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内服薬

はじめに、ごく一般的な剤型の内服薬にはどのような市販薬があるのかを見ていきましょう。

アレグラ

薬女性

アレグラが持つ花粉症に有効な成分は塩酸フェキソフェナシンです。この成分の主な作用は、アレルギー性の鼻炎などの原因となっているヒスタミンH1の拮抗作用によく抑制効果ですが、それ以外にも好酸球を活性させたり炎症の原因を遊離させることでアレルギー反応を抑制する効果があります。

これらの効果によって抑制できるとされるアレルギー症状には花粉症や鼻炎のほかに、アトピー性皮膚炎や蕁麻疹があります。

副作用には眠気・頭痛・倦怠感が代表的なものとしてありますが、用量を超えると肝機能障害などの重大な副作用を引き起こすという事も確認されていますから、用量は必ず守ることが重要です。

60mgの錠剤を1回1錠、1日2回までの服用となっていますが、症状でその用量を変えることもあります。花粉症での用法として、花粉症を発症する前の段階で服用を始め花粉症シーズンを乗り越えるまで継続して服用するとより効果があるとされています。

ジルティック

ジルティックの主な成分には塩酸セチリジンがあります。この成分はヒスタミンH1受容体に結合し、ヒスタミンが及ぼす影響を抑制することでアレルギー反応を抑える効果があります。花粉症や鼻炎のアレルギー反応のほかアトピー性皮膚炎や蕁麻疹などの肌の痒みを抑える効果もあります。

副作用には眠気・口渇感・倦怠感がありますが、その成分の強さから妊婦や授乳中のお母さんの使用は控えるように勧告されています。また、用量を超えると稀にショックや痙攣や肝臓や腎臓・血液などへの障害を発症する場合もあります。

用法は1日1錠を必ず守り、就寝前に服用します。

アルガード

主な成分にはメキタジンがあります。この成分の特徴は抗アレルギー作用にあります。様々なアレルギーが原因の症状に対してそのアレルギー反応の抑制とアレルギー症状の抑制と両方に効果があります。

もともと精神疾患に発展する恐れがあることが言われていますので、他の薬と併用すると重大な副作用を引き起こす恐れがあるとも言われています。

副作用には眠気・倦怠感・口渇感があります。稀に眼圧の上昇があり、緑内障などの目の疾患を患っている場合には視力の低下の恐れがあります。またその他に前立腺機能障害・ショック状態・肝機能障害の恐れもあります。

用法は錠剤・粉末・シロップなどありますがどれも1日2回の用量を守ることが重要です。服用量は症状によって異なりますが、車の運転や危険な作業をする時の使用は他の薬との併用を絶対にしないことが勧告されています。

外用薬(点鼻・点眼)

では、続いて直接患部に投薬する外服薬について見ていきましょう。

レガーテ点鼻薬

主な成分はフマル酸ケチトフェンで、この成分の効果はアレルギー反応の原因となるヒスタミンの作用を抑制するところにあります。内服薬の成分としてもその効果が認められていますので、様々な剤型で市販されている成分でもあります。

点鼻薬としての副作用は点鼻箇所の刺激を感じる程度と言われており、用法はシーズンに入るころから点鼻を開始するとより効果的とされています。また、車の運転や危険な作業を伴う場合にはその直前の使用を控えたほうが良いとされていることから就寝前の点鼻が好ましいと言えるでしょう。

コールタイジン点鼻薬

この点鼻薬の成分による作用は、塩酸テトラヒドロゾリンによる血管の収縮作用と、副腎皮質ホルモン(ステロイド成分)のブレドニゾロンによる炎症抑制作用があります。二つの成分による作用によって花粉症や鼻炎の充血・炎症を改善する働きがあります。

副作用には刺激などの過敏症状が悪化することが挙げられていますが、特に連続して使用することで粘膜を痛めたり感想や充血を引き起こす可能性が認められています。

用法は3時間以上の間隔をあけて1日4回までとされていて、市販されてはいるものの医師の指導を守ることが適切な使用方法の基本とされています。

アイリス点眼薬

主な成分はレガーテ点鼻薬と同じくフマル酸ケチトフェンが使われていて、成分による作用も同じです。

副作用については稀に眼瞼炎症や結膜の充血がみられるケースがあります。用法や用量もレガーテ点鼻薬と同様の注意が必要です。

アイフリーコーワ点眼薬

アシタザノラスト水和物が主な成分で、ヒスタミンなどのアレルギー反応物質を遊離抑制することで炎症などを抑制する効果があります。

副作用には刺激感や涙の増加、充血などがあります。妊娠中や授乳中のお母さんの使用は控えるようにも勧告されています。

用法は1回2滴まで、1日4回の点眼とされています。

【第2類医薬品】パブロン鼻炎カプセルZ 28カプセル
大正製薬 (2011-01-01)
売り上げランキング: 17,571

まとめ:花粉症に効く市販薬の用法は守ろう

花粉症の症状を緩和したり改善してくれる薬は他にもさまざまな薬がありますが、効く薬となるとやはりそれだけ体への影響が強いものもあるという事がえいます。

特に妊娠中や授乳中のお母さんにとって、花粉症の薬の成分が重大な結果を招いてしまいかねないケースもありますから、その選び方はとても大切です。

市販薬を購入する際には、薬剤師や医師に自分の現状を説明したうえで相談して選ぶようにすると間違いのない花粉症に効く市販薬を上手に選ぶことができることでしょう。

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