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話題の舌下免疫療法も!花粉症の症状緩和に役立つ3つの最新治療

医師

この季節になると花粉症が気になりますね。

花粉症には薬を飲んだりヨーグルトを食べたりと対策をしている人も多いと思います。完全な治療法も解明されていない花粉症はまだまだ研究の余地があり、日々の研究のおかげで年々新しい治療法が増えています。

そこで本記事では、花粉症の最新治療はどのようなものがあるのかご紹介します。今までの花粉症治療にお悩みの方はぜひとも最新治療を知り、花粉症対策に役立ててください。

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花粉症の最新治療について

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花粉症の対策というとどのようなものを浮かべるでしょうか。薬、注射、食事など様々な花粉症対策があります。花粉症の対策には花粉を侵入させないことも大切ですが、こちらでは花粉対策の以外の症状の緩和に注目していきたいと思います。

花粉症の最新治療にも様々なものがありますが、こちらでは特に話題になった舌下免疫療法の他にアルゴンプラズマ凝固法、投薬の3つについてご紹介していきます。

花粉症の最新治療①舌下免疫療法

花粉症の最新治療として話題になっている舌下免疫療法は今までは保険適応しておらず、自費診察扱いでした。しかし、H26年春に舌下治療薬のシダトレンが保険適応予定となり、診療も保険適応が予定されています。

舌下免疫療法は薬のような対処療法ではなく、アレルギー反応の元のスギ花粉を少しずつ体内に入れていき、体質を変える方法です。アレルギー性鼻炎では「減感作療法」や「脱感作療法」とも呼ばれています。

治療方法は、花粉症の飛散時期終了まで毎日舌の下にスギ花粉の入ったエキスをたらし、数分ほど放置するという簡単なものです。この治療では花粉症の7~8割の人に効果があるとされているうえに、もともとある注射よりも副作用が少ないといった点で最新治療法として着目されています。

ただし、最新治療の舌下免疫療法は保険適応がH26年春のため、保険適応で治療をするにはH26年12月頃からになってしまいます。そのため、保険適応は H27年度以降の花粉シーズン対策になってしまい、H26年の花粉症には間に合わないようです。

花粉症の最新治療②アルゴンプラズマ凝固法

花粉症のレーザー治療というと、一般的なものは炭酸ガスを使った治療です。しかし、レーザーを使った治療の分野でも最新治療が次々と現れています。

炭酸ガスを使ったレーザー治療は、鼻の粘膜の表面を水分と共に蒸発させ、花粉がついても反応がしにくい状態にする治療法です。中程度の花粉症患者であれば8割が有効とされており、軽度のうちに選択したい方法です。

しかし、炭酸ガスの治療は鼻に水分が多いと、レーザーの光が水に吸収されて効果を感じることはできません。そのため、花粉の飛散時期に合わせた前年12月~1月中までには受けておかないといけないので、これからのシーズンでは間に合いません。

そこで、最新治療のひとつとして、これからの季節でも使用ができるアルゴンプラズマ凝固法に人気が出てきたのです。アルゴンプラズマ凝固法とは下甲介粘膜にアルゴンレーザーをあてることで粘膜を収縮させ、アレルゲンの反応をにぶくし、花粉症、特に鼻づまりを軽減させ効果があります。

この治療は炭酸ガスと違い、水分をアルゴンガスで吹き飛ばしながら処理します。そのため、アルゴンプラズマはアレルギーなどで鼻水が出ているときにも治療可能です。また、炭酸ガスのレーザーは点で焼いていきますが、最新治療のアルゴンプラズマ療法は面であてていくため、時間も5分もかからずにあてていくことができるのです。

ただし、治療を始めて2週間程度は一時的に鼻水や鼻詰まりが強くなるとされているので、できるだけ早い処置が望ましいでしょう。

花粉症の最新治療③花粉症治療薬

花粉症治療薬といえば、「眠くなる」「ボーっとする」といった副作用が上げられます。今では病院へ行かず、花粉症治療薬をドラッグストアなどで購入する人も多いのではないでしょうか。市販薬の多くは即効性の高い第一世代ヒスタミン薬です。急な症状の緩和には向きますが、眠気が強いという副作用があります。

そこで眠気がおこりにくい最新治療薬として「アレグラ」などの第二世代ヒスタミン薬が市販されました。第二世代というのは、抗アレルギー薬のうち、抗ヒスタミン作用をもつものの総称で、抗アレルギー薬と呼ばれることもあります。

最新治療薬のアレグラは、効果はそれほど強力ではありませんが、副作用が少なく、花粉症のシーズン中飲むことが可能です。症状の緩和には予防的に飛散前に飲み始め、シーズン中は切らさずに飲み続けることが重要になります。

市販薬だけでなく、処方薬でも色々と最新治療が行われています。市販薬でも最新治療として出されたアレグラなどの処方薬の他にも、抗ロイコトリエン拮抗剤の「キプレス」や「シングレア」などの眠くならないとされている薬も出されるようになりました。

キプレスはもともと喘息の薬として処方されていたものですが、アレルギー鼻炎の鼻づまりにも効果があることが実証されました。従来の抗ヒスタミンが不得意としていた鼻づまりに効果的なうえ、持続性が高く、寝る前の一錠服用することで一日対応できるのも嬉しいところです。

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まとめ:最新治療を知って効果的な対処を

ここまでで、花粉症の最新治療を3つご紹介してきました。そこで、最後に簡単に確認していきましょう。

  • 舌下免疫療法:スギ花粉による体質改善方法。H27年度分より保険適応。
  • アルゴンプラズマ凝固法:レーザーで鼻づまりの防止。副作用に注意。
  • 花粉症治療薬:市販薬、処方薬ともに眠くならない薬も増えている。

いまだに花粉症は完治が難しいとされています。つらい花粉症でお悩みの方は、今までの方法の他にもこれらの最新治療などから対策を立てていってはどうでしょうか。花粉症は自分に合ったものだと、ぴたりと症状が治まることもあるそうです。様々な対処法を知り、自分に合った対処方法をみつけていきましょう。

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寝起きの花粉症を和らげるために寝る前にやっておきたい4つのこと

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