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妊娠していても使える花粉症の薬

妊婦

妊娠していても花粉症の症状はつらいものですが、花粉症の薬を使っていいものなのかが心配になります。妊娠すると、花粉症の症状は薬を使わないで我慢して、耐え抜かなければならないものなのでしょうか。妊娠していても使える花粉症の薬について紹介します。

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妊娠している時の投薬の考え方

考える

妊娠している時には、内服薬を使用するのではなく、点鼻薬や点眼薬のような局所的な使用をして症状を和らげるようにします。なぜなら、内服薬より局所的な薬の方が全身に成分が行き渡りにくく、より安全性が高いからです。使用される点鼻薬の例としては、フルナーゼ、ナゾネックス、アラミスト、インタール、ザジテンが挙げられます。点眼薬の例としては、パタノールやリボスチン、インタール、ザジテンが挙げられます。また、小青竜湯といった漢方薬が使われることもあります。内服薬もしばしば処方されることがあり、アレグラやアレロック、アレジオン、ジルテックなどが挙げられます。

どうしても症状が強い場合には、ポララミン錠といった抗ヒスタミン剤を服用する場合もあります。また、抗アレルギー薬としてクラリチンが使われることもあります。これらは、妊婦でも比較的安全に使えて、使用されている頻度も高いので、使われることが多いです。

基本的には、妊娠3カ月くらいまでの初期の段階では、外用薬も含めて薬の使用を控えた方がいいと言われています。安定期に入ると、胎児の器官形成に影響はないものの、胎児への毒性が問題になります。この場合も、かかりつけの産婦人科の医師と相談して薬を処方してもらうようにしましょう。

妊娠中に使用してはいけない薬

催奇形性の恐れのあるセルテクト錠や、骨格異常を起こす可能性のあるリザベンカプセル、発育遅延の可能性があるアレギサール錠など、妊娠中に使用してはいけない薬があります。耳鼻科で妊娠していることを伝えればこれらの薬を避けて処方されますが、より専門的な産婦人科にかかるといいでしょう。

妊娠している時にアレルギー免疫療法は可能?

体内に症状が出ない程度の、非常に微量なアレルギー原因物質を繰り返し投与して、アレルギー物質に身体を慣れされてアレルギー反応が出ないようにするという方法があります。このアレルギー免疫療法は長期間専門医への通院が必要になりますので、治療を継続中の方は、妊娠した場合医師と相談して治療を継続することができます。ただし、妊娠している時に新たにこの治療方法を始めることはできません。

妊娠している時の花粉症の薬の危険性

妊娠している時に花粉症の薬を服用しても、基本的には抗アレルギー剤では催奇形性はほぼありません。基本的に妊娠している時は、内服薬は飲まない方がいいです。特に妊娠4~7週目は器官形成時期に当たりますので、避けましょう。最も危険性の高い時期は妊娠28~50日目と言われており、その次に危険性の高い時期は妊娠51~112日目です。薬の服用に問題がない時期は妊娠0~27日目であり、問題があるような場合には妊娠は成立しません。

アレグラは妊娠中に影響があるのか?

よくCMでも見かけるアレグラと言う花粉症用の医薬品は、妊娠中に飲んでもいいのでしょうか。

アレグラについては、妊娠している人が服用して催奇形性が起こったという報告はありません。そのため、妊娠していて一時的に服用していても、問題はないとされています。しかし、万が一のことを考えると飲まないに越した事はありません。特に、花粉症の薬は毎日飲むものが多いですから、薬剤が一定濃度で体内に残ることになります。そのため、胎児は常に薬にさらされている状態になります。

薬に頼らない花粉症対策

薬を飲んでも絶対に安全であると言いきれるものはありませんので、できることなら薬に頼らず花粉症の時期を乗り切りたいものです。妊娠している方が薬に頼らないでできる花粉症対策を紹介します。

①マスクを着用する

マスクを着用するのは常識ですが、ポイントはマスクの形です。マスクが顔にしっかりフィットしていないと、隙間から花粉が侵入してきて、マスクの意味がなくなってしまいます。しっかり顔にフィットするマスク選びが大切です。

②メガネ型のゴーグルを装着する

メガネ型のゴーグルは目を花粉から守るために非常に高い効果があります。しかし、おしゃれの点から少し抵抗のある方も多いです。

③空気清浄機を利用する

部屋の中にも花粉が入り込んできます。空気清浄機は、部屋の中での症状軽減に効果のあるアイテムですので、利用するといいでしょう。

まとめ:妊娠中は投薬にも注意が必要

妊娠中にも服用できる花粉症薬はありますが、妊娠の時期によっては使用できない薬がありますし、その人の身体の状態によっても異なります。産婦人科の医師としっかり相談して薬を使うようにしましょう。

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