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目薬
目薬

花粉症に効果がある目薬の分類と特徴について

めぐすり

花粉症に悩む人は多く、薬による予防、治療や手術による治療なども行なわれています。花粉症の症状としては、くしゃみ、鼻水だけではなく、目のかゆみも症状の一つです。治療には目薬を使用しますが、眼科で目薬を処方してもらう場合と市販の目薬を使用する場合で、どのような種類の目薬があるのか気になるところです。そこで、それぞれの代表的な目薬の特徴について整理してみましょう。

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病院で処方される目薬

ラマ

抗アレルギー剤

かゆみの原因であるヒスタミンの発生を防ぐ作用のある成分です。したがって、症状が軽い場合には、すぐに効き目が現れますが、通常は使用開始してから徐々に効果が増してゆき、数日から2週間くらいで効果が安定します。次のようなお薬が該当します。

  1. インタール
  2. クロモフェロン
  3. ザジテン
  4. リザベン
  5. アレギサール
  6. ペミリドン
  7. アイビナール

抗ヒスタミン剤

ヒスタミンの活動を抑制する特長を持つ成分です。「抗アレルギー剤」よりも即効性がありますが、効果の持続性がやや弱いという欠点を持ちます。次のようなお薬があります。

  1. リボスチン
  2. レボカバスチン
  3. パタノール(抗アレルギー作用も持つ)

ステロイド剤

「抗アレルギー剤」や「抗ヒスタミン剤」で症状が改善しない場合や症状がひどい場合に使用します。作用の強い成分ですので、自分の判断で点眼回数を増やしたり、使用方法を変更してはいけません。医師の指示に従って使用して下さい。

  1. フルメトロン(0.1%、0.02%)
  2. オドメール(0.1%、0.05%、0.02%)

その他

おもに「春季カタル(アレルギー性結膜炎のうち、結膜に増殖性病変がみられるものをいいます)」の治療に使われる目薬です。免疫抑制作用を持つ成分が含まれています。高額ですが非常に効果が高いという特長があります。

  1. タリムス
  2. パピロックミニ

市販の目薬

    1. ニューAGアイズ(第一三共ヘルスケア)

抗アレルギー剤の「クロモグリク酸ナトリウム」が肥満細胞膜を安定化して、目のかゆみ・充血等のアレルギー症状の誘発物質(ヒスタミン)の放出を抑えます。抗ヒスタミン剤の「クロルフェニラミンマレイン酸塩」がヒスタミンが受容体に結合するのをブロックし、アレルギーの症状を緩和します。

    1. サジテンAL(ノバルティスファーマ)

抗アレルギー剤の「ケトチフェンフマル酸塩」を配合したアレルギー症状用点眼薬です。
花粉やハウスダストなどによる激しい目のかゆみや目の充血、なみだ目などのアレルギー症状に高い効果を発揮します。抗アレルギー、抗ヒスタミン、抗炎症の3つの作用を持ちますので、アレルギー症状に対する強い抑制効果を発揮します。

    1. サンテ アルフリー新目薬(参天製薬)

抗ヒスタミン剤を含有し、かゆみや充血を効果的に抑えるのみではなく、炎症を起こした組織の修復を助ける成分を配合した目薬です。また、清涼感をもたらす成分によりスッキリとしたクールなさし心地で、爽快感が与えられます。

    1. ロート アルガード クリアブロックEX(ロート製薬)

プラノプロフェン、クロモグリク酸ナトリウム、クロルフェニラミンマレイン酸塩の3つの成分に加え、コンドロイチン硫酸エステルナトリウム(角膜保護成分)を新たに配合しています。医療現場の治療に準拠した考え方に基づく処方で、アレルギー症状のみではなく、炎症に対しても優れた効果を示します。

コンタクトレンズを使用している場合の注意点

コンタクトレンズを着用していると、目の中の涙による洗浄作用が弱まるため、花粉が滞留しやすくなります。裸眼時よりも免疫反応が強く出て、目やにが多くなる傾向があります。アレルギー性結膜炎へと悪化する可能性もありますので、コンタクトレンズをはずしている時間帯に予防的に目薬を使用するなどの工夫が必要です。花粉症用のゴーグルや、1日使い捨てレンズを使用するなどの対策も有効です。

【第2類医薬品】ロートアルガードクリアマイルド 13mL
ロート製薬 (2012-12-17)
売り上げランキング: 43,683

まとめ:花粉症対策の目薬について-病院処方薬と市販薬の分類

本記事では、花粉症対策の目薬について、病院処方薬と市販薬を系統別に分類し、紹介しました。

  1. 抗アレルギー剤は、ヒスタミンの発生を防いでアレルギー症状を抑えます。
  2. 抗ヒスタミン剤は、ヒスタミンの活動を抑える働きがあり、即効性がありますが、やや効果の持続性に欠けます。
  3. ステロイド剤は、効果が強いのですが、用法に注意しなければなりません。

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Check Also

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寝起きの花粉症を和らげるために寝る前にやっておきたい4つのこと

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