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鼻をかむ女性、ティッシュ、風邪
鼻をかむ女性、ティッシュ、風邪

花粉症のメカニズムは?花粉症になる人とならない人の違い

花粉症の女性

この時期の悩み花粉症。花粉症はアレルギー。何となく分かってはいるけど、そのメカニズムは?

一体花粉症はどのようなメカニズムで、あのくしゃみや鼻水の原因となるのでしょうか?花粉症のメカニズムを知れば花粉症が治るかも!?

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花粉症のメカニズム

森

花粉症は周知の通り花粉が原因で起こるアレルギー症状です。アレルギーとは特定の物質に対して体が過剰に反応してしまう現象です。

花粉症の人が花粉を体内に取り込んでしまうと、花粉を異物とみなし(抗原)対抗するために『抗体』を作り出します。このIgE抗体と呼ばれる物質は鼻や目の粘膜にある肥満細胞と結合します。

この抗体が付いた肥満細胞は花粉が体内に侵入するたびに増加し、ある一定の量に達すると、花粉に反応してヒスタミンやロイコトリエンと呼ばれる化学物質を放出するようになります。これらの化学物質がくしゃみや鼻水、目の痒みなどの症状を引き起こすようになるのです。

また、ヒスタミンやロイコトリエンの出方や量によって症状が現れる場所や強さも変わってきます。

ヒスタミン

ヒスタミンは鼻や目の粘膜の知覚神経を刺激し、くしゃみや鼻水、目の痒みといった症状を引き起こす物質です。

ロイコトリエン

ロイコトリエンは血管に働きかけ、血管を拡張させることにより粘膜を腫らせ、鼻詰まりや、充血、目の腫れなどを引き起こす物質です。

ちょっと難しい話ですが、これが花粉症のメカニズムです。

ヒスタミンと言えば

花粉症のメカニズム、ここで出てきたのが『ヒスタミン』耳に聞き覚えのある方もいるのではないでしょうか?

このヒスタミンなる物質は実は色々な食べ物に含まれています。花粉症の人がこのヒスタミンの多く含まれる食品を花粉のシーズン中に口にしてしまうと、花粉症の症状をあっかせてしまう可能性があります。

花粉症の人が花粉のシーズン中に食べるのを控えた方が良い食べ物です。
ほうれん草・なす・タケノコ・トマト

意外なところに落とし穴があります。この私たちの食卓に馴染みの深い食品にはヒスタミンが多く含まれています。花粉症の症状が重い人はこれらのシーズン中はこれらの食材をなるべく避けるようにしましょう。

特にタケノコなどは春の味覚として何の迷いもなく食べていたのではないでしょうか?他にも花粉症の症状を悪化させる食品にはソーセージ・ハムなどの加工品やインスタント食品などがあります。

花粉症になりやすい体質とは?

花粉症のメカニズムはなんとな~く分かって頂けたとは思いますが、世の中にはなぜ花粉症になる人とならない人がいるのでしょうか?そのメカニズムは?

花粉症にかかりやすい体質。

  • 両親が花粉症にかかっていた、もしくは両親がアレルギー体質
  • 体内に飽和脂肪酸(悪い油)が多い
  • 子供のころから食物アレルギーを持っている
  • 体内の抗酸化酵素(活性酸素を取り除く物質)の量が少ない
  • 乳酸菌など善玉菌の減少により、腸内の環境が良くない
  • 自律神経が乱れやすい
  • 体内でIgE抗体が作られやすい
  • 免疫力が低い

これが花粉症にかかりやすい、もしくは花粉症の人が持っている条件だそうです。

こうして見てみると、遺伝的、先天的なものがある一方で、改善可能なものがいくつもある事が分かります。やはり花粉症のメカニズムを知れば花粉症は治る!?

体内の飽和脂肪酸

体内の飽和脂肪酸の量に関してですが、一言で脂肪酸といっても幾つかの種類に分かれ体内での働きもそれぞれに異なるようです。脂肪イコール体に悪いとは言えず、脂質というのは生命活動に欠かせない栄養素の一つでもあります。脂肪を減らせば花粉症が治るという単純なものではありません。

しかし問題はこの飽和脂肪酸、ラードやバター、肉類の脂肪や乳製品の脂肪に多く含まれるこの飽和脂肪酸、大切なエネルギー源である一方で、常温では固体で存在する為、体内でも固まりやすくコレステロールを増加させます。血中に増えすぎる事によって動脈硬化の原因ともなる、『いわゆる悪い油』になりやすい物です。

シンプルに言うならば、動物性の脂肪は控えめに。

腸内環境

もう一つ簡単に解決できる問題として腸内環境があるのではないでしょうか?

色々な所ですでに騒がれてはいますが、ヨーグルトで腸内環境を整えると花粉症の症状が緩和されると言われています。継続的に食べ続ける事が大切なのでぜひ続けましょう。

他にも実践出来る事

その他にも数多くある抗酸化作用のある食品を積極的に摂り入れる事で血中の活性酸素は減らす事ができます。自律神経の乱れは運動や充分な睡眠である程度整える事が出来ます。

花粉症のメカニズム、詳しく知れば知るほど花粉症克服の可能性も見えてきたのではないでしょうか?すでに飛散のはじまってしまった季節ではありますが、メカニズムや原因そのものを詳しく知る事で症状の軽減に繋がりそうです。

来年は、ひょっとしたら花粉症知らずかも!?

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花粉症のメカニズムは?のまとめ

  • 花粉症は花粉に反応してヒスタミンやロイコトリエンという科学物質が体内で生成、放出される事によるアレルギー反応。
  • ヒスタミンは食品にも含まれる、花粉症の人がこれを食べると症状悪化の可能性がある。
  • 花粉症になる人とならない人、そのメカニズムを探れば花粉症が治る可能性もある!

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