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花粉症の薬の種類と風邪薬との飲み合わせ

瓶薬

花粉症対策に使われる薬にはさまざまな種類があります。具体的にどのような種類があるかご存知ですか。また、花粉症の薬を飲む時に心配になるのは、他の薬との飲み合わせです。特に、花粉症のシーズンは風邪をひきやすい時期でもありますから、市販の風邪薬を使いたいと思われる方も多いのではないでしょうか。しかし、飲み方を誤ると、身体に害が及ぶこともありますので注意が必要です。

花粉症の薬の種類と風邪薬との飲み合わせについて紹介します。薬を正しく使って、効果を最大限に得られるようにしましょう。

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抗アレルギー薬

薬シート

花粉症によるくしゃみや鼻水、鼻づまり、目のかゆみといった症状は、アレルギーの原因物質であるヒスタミンが働くことによって起こります。抗アレルギー薬は、花粉症の症状をひき起こすヒスタミンの発生と放出を抑制して症状を和らげたり、症状の出始めを送らせたりする効果があります。

抗アレルギー薬は、予防効果も期待されており、一旦放出されたヒスタミンを抑えるだけでなく、ヒスタミンの発生を抑えることで予防ができます。花粉の飛散時期の2週間ほど前から服用を始め、シーズンが終わるまでずっと服用を続けます。さほど強力な薬ではありませんが、副作用が少ないものが多く、シーズン中ずっと飲み続けることができます。また、症状が軽ければ、抗アレルギー薬だけで症状を和らげることができます。

抗アレルギー薬にはかなり多くの種類がありますが、その効果や副作用については人それぞれ異なります。また、抗アレルギー薬の中でも、抗ヒスタミンの効果があるものとないものがあります。抗ヒスタミン効果があるものは、塩基性抗アレルギー薬と呼ばれています。例えば、アゼプチンやアレロック、セロテクト、ザジデン、アレジオン、エバステル、アレグラなどがあります。一方、抗ヒスタミン効果がないものは、酸性抗アレルギー薬と呼ばれており、リザベンやアレギザール、ソルファーなどがこれにあたります。最近では、ほとんど塩基性抗アレルギー薬が使われており、予防効果と即効性が期待できます。

抗アレルギー薬は、症状が出てからでは効き目が感じにくいと言われています。ただ、シーズン中ずっと飲んでも副作用が出にくいという特徴から、花粉症の治療薬として多く使われています。また、塩基性抗アレルギー薬では抗ヒスタミン効果もありますので、症状が出てからでも効き目があるものもあります。

抗ヒスタミン薬

抗ヒスタミン薬では、花粉の侵入で発生したヒスタミンの働きを抑制します。昔から使われている薬であり、病院で処方される薬にも市販の薬にも多く含まれています。ヒスタミンの働きに直接働きかけますので、くしゃみや鼻水、目のかゆみなどの花粉症の症状が辛い時に、即効性があります。また、出てしまった症状についても効果があり、抗アレルギー薬よりも症状がよくなったと感じられます。ただし、くしゃみや鼻水に高い効果が得られますが、鼻づまりについては効果があまりありません。

ステロイド

ステロイドは、元々人の副腎皮質で分泌されているホルモンを人工的に作った薬であり、ヒスタミンの作用による鼻の粘膜の炎症や目の結膜の炎症を軽減します。免疫系など組織の反応性を弱める作用もありますので、アレルギー反応を抑える効果もあります。効果は非常に強く、花粉症のみならず多くの疾患でも治療に使われます。その効果は抗ヒスタミン薬よりも明らかに症状の改善が見られ、抗アレルギー薬や抗ヒスタミン薬で効果がなかった人でも効果が期待できます。ただし、即効性はなく、1~2日経ってから効果を発揮します。

ただし、効果が強い反面、強い副作用があることも忘れてはいけません。ホルモンを人工的に注入することになりますので、身体の様々な機能のバランスに影響があり、感染症や胃潰瘍、骨粗鬆症などの副作用があります。そのため、大量に投与した後、急に中断すると、副腎が委縮して花粉症の症状がぶり返す危険性もあります。

花粉症の薬と風邪薬の飲み合わせ

花粉症の薬の中には、風邪薬にも入っている抗ヒスタミン薬や血管収縮薬が含まれていることがあります。そのため、花粉症の薬と風邪薬を一緒に飲むと、血中濃度が高くなり、副作用が起きる可能性が高まる危険性があります。

アレルシャット 花粉イオンでブロック 160回分
フマキラー (2012-11-13)
売り上げランキング: 2,917

まとめ:花粉症の薬と風邪薬は一緒に飲まない方がいい

花粉症の薬と風邪薬には、重複している成分がある場合がありますので、一緒に飲むと副作用の危険性が高まります。花粉症の薬と風邪薬を一緒に飲む時には、医師や薬剤師に相談するようにしましょう。自己判断で薬を選ぶのはやめましょう。

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