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薬局
薬局

第2世代抗ヒスタミン剤、花粉症治療薬のジルテックとは

薬局

花粉症治療薬としてはさまざまな種類のものがありますが、よく処方されるもの(あるいは薬局でも見かけるもの)としてジルテックという薬剤があります。このジルテックは、非常に安心して使うことができる「第2世代抗ヒスタミン剤」と呼ばれるタイプの薬です。この第2世代抗ヒスタミン剤とは一体何なのでしょうか。本稿では花粉症治療のために用いられるジルテックについて、その特徴をまとめています。

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ジルテックは第2世代ヒスタミン薬

医者

花粉症治療のために薬(内服薬)を利用されている方は多いと思います。花粉症治療のための内服薬はさまざまな種類がありますが、よく利用されているものとしてジルテックがあります。ジルテックは、第2世代ヒスタミン薬と呼ばれるタイプの内服薬です。

この第2世代ヒスタミン薬と呼ばれるジルテックは花粉症治療薬としてどのような特徴があるのでしょうか。

第2世代ヒスタミン薬とは?その特徴は副作用の少なさ

ジルテックの大きな特徴は、第2世代ヒスタミン薬という点ですが、そもそも、この第2世代ヒスタミン薬とは一体何なのでしょうか。

第2世代ヒスタミン薬というからには、第1世代(初代)ヒスタミン薬があるはずです。
ヒスタミンとは、体内で生成される化学物質のことをいいます。花粉症に関して言えば、体内で作られた化学物質のヒスタミンは、くしゃみやなみだなどを通して異物である花粉を体外に放出する作用を持つ物質です。

このヒスタミンの分泌それ自体を抑えることでつらい花粉症の症状(くしゃみ・なみだなど)を抑えるのが抗ヒスタミン薬です。

ただ、抗ヒスタミン薬は化学物質の分泌を抑えるという働きがある分、強い眠気などの副作用がありました。そのため、高い効能はあるものの、仕事等の関係からどうしても利用がはばかられてしまうのが抗ヒスタミンの問題点でした。

そこで、副作用を克服し、眠気・だるさなどを抑えることに成功した薬剤が第2世代抗ヒスタミン薬です。そのため、第2世代抗ヒスタミン剤は眠気やだるさなどの副作用が少ないという大きな特徴があります。

ジルテックもこの第2世代抗ヒスタミン剤の一種ですので、花粉症対策として服用しても眠気やだるさなどがなかなかでないという意味で非常に使いやすい花粉症治療薬ということができます。

ジルテック以外の第2世代抗ヒスタミン剤としては、アレグラなどが挙げられます。

またジルテックの利用が認可されたのは1998年のことですから、すでに20年程度の利用実績がある花粉症治療薬です。この長期間に渡る利用実績も使用にあたっての安全性を示すことが出来るということが言えるでしょう。

このように、眠気などの副作用が少なく、安心して使用することができるのが花粉症治療薬・ジルテックの大きな特徴ということができます。

ジルテックなどの薬の服用以外の花粉症治療方法の比較

ジルテックなどの薬の服用以外にも、花粉症の治療法としては色々なものがあります。薬の服用以外には花粉症の治療法はどのようなものがあるのでしょうか。

まず、服用するタイプの花粉症治療役に着目した場合、花粉症の治療薬は、第2世代抗ヒスタミン剤が利用の中心となっています。さまざまな名称や作用の差異はあるものの、やはり治療の中心は抗ヒスタミン剤です。そのため、ジルテックと同じように眠気などはあまりでない治療薬を処方してもらえることになります。

ただ、一方で服用タイプの花粉症治療薬は効果が必ずしも高いとは言えない点が欠点と言えます。つまり、ジルテックを含めて花粉症の治療薬を飲んだとしても必ずしも花粉症がよくなるわけではありません。

そこで、薬の服用以外の花粉症治療法として、例えば、減感作療法という治療法があります。これは長期にわたり注射をすることでアレルギー体質をなくしてしまい、その結果として花粉症を治療するというものです。

減感作療法は中・長期的に花粉症治療をお考えの方にはおすすめすることができると言えるでしょう。

他には、花粉症治療のためにレーザー治療を行うこともあります。花粉症のレーザー治療は鼻にレーザーを照射し、鼻の粘膜を焼いてしまうという方法です。やや荒っぽい方法にも思えますが、粘膜の花粉へ反応することを防ぐことが可能となるので高い効果があります。

このように見ていくと、ジルテックなどの薬の服用は比較的「マイルド」な花粉症治療法ということができます。

まとめ:ジルテックは安心・低副作用の花粉症治療薬

以上、本文で述べましたジルテックの特徴などについてまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • ジルテックは花粉症治療薬の一種です。特徴として第2世代抗ヒスタミン剤と呼ばれるタイプの薬です。
  • 第2世代抗ヒスタミン剤であるジルテックは服用しても眠気やだるさなどがあまり生じません。つまり、花粉症治療薬として副作用が非常に少ない点が特徴の薬です
  • 花粉症治療法としては注射を用いる減感作療法やレーザー治療などもあります。これらに比べるとジルテックをはじめとする花粉症治療薬の服用による治療は体に負担が少ない「マイルド」な治療法ということができます

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