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杉、木、林、森
杉、木、林、森

花粉を効果的に予防するための8つのポイント

森

花粉のシーズンが訪れる度に、「また今年もこの季節か・・・」と憂鬱な気分になっている方も多いのではないでしょうか?

花粉の飛散からは逃れることはできませんが、様々な方法で花粉症を予防することができます。花粉症の効果的な予防法を知っていれば、憂鬱な花粉のシーズンを少しでも快適に乗り切ることができますね。

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花粉症の予防方法~シーズン前にできること

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花粉症であることがわかっている場合、花粉症のシーズンが来る前に予防的な治療を行うことで、花粉症の症状を軽減させることができます。このような予防的な治療の方法として、薬物療法減感作療法レーザー治療を挙げることができます。

それでは次に、それぞれの療法についてご紹介しましょう。

花粉症の予防その1:薬物療法

花粉のシーズンが始まる2週間ほど前から、医療機関を受診し自分にあった薬を飲む方法です。ここで使われる薬には以下のようなものがあります。

【抗アレルギー薬】
くしゃみ、鼻水、鼻づまりに効果があります。副作用はほとんどなく、飲み始めてから約2週間ほどで薬の効果が現れます。薬の種類としては、点鼻薬、点眼薬、飲み薬があります。

【抗ヒスタミン剤】
くしゃみや鼻づまりに効果があり、即効的な効果はありますが効き目が持続する時間が短いという特徴があります。飲み始めてから1~2日で薬の効果が現れます。眠気やのどの渇きなどの副作用があると言われていましたが、最近ではこのような副作用を改善した新しいタイプのものも出ています。

【抗ロイコトリエン薬】
鼻づまりや鼻水、くしゃみに効果があり、薬を飲み始めてから1週間ほどで効果が現れます。

花粉症の予防その2:減感作療法

花粉症の原因となる抗原(花粉)を、少しずつ増やしながら定期的に皮下注射することによって、抗原に身体を慣れさせアレルギー反応を弱めていく治療法です。

アレルギーを治す唯一の根治療法ですが、治療を2~3年と長期間続ける必要があります。約60~70%の人に治療効果が見られます。

花粉症の予防その3:レーザー治療

鼻の粘膜にレーザーを照射して、花粉が付着してもアレルギー反応が起こらないようにする治療法です。

日帰りで手術ができて比較的安全な治療法ですが、粘膜は数か月~2年で再生するため、長期的な効果はありません。

花粉症の予防方法~シーズン中にできること

花粉のシーズンに入ってからは、引き続き薬物療法による予防を行うほかに、花粉に触れないようにするという単純でいて最も効果的な予防方法があります。単純とはいえ、花粉は目に見えないものですから、花粉に触れないように生活するためには、いくつかのポイントを押さえることが大切です。

それではここで、花粉にできるだけ触れないように生活するためのポイントをご紹介します。

花粉症の予防その4:身体に入る花粉を防ぐ

花粉は風の強い晴れた日に多く飛散します。特に昼前から午後3時頃までが花粉の飛ぶポークの時間ですので、このようなときにはできるだけ外出を控えることが花粉症の予防には効果の高い方法です。

とはいえ、花粉が飛ぶ度に仕事や学校などを休むわけにはいきませんね。そこで、花粉が多く飛散している日に外出するときに、注意したいポイントをおさえておきましょう。
【花粉多い日に外出するときの予防のポイント】

  • 顔の周り:目・鼻・口からの花粉の侵入を予防するため、プロテクター付のメガネやゴーグル、マスク、スカーフ、帽子を着用する
  • 洋服:服は花粉が付きにくいスベスベした素材のものを選ぶ
  • 髪型:花粉がつきにくいように、髪をコンパクトにまとめる
  • 外出から帰ったら、手・顔・目・鼻をよく洗いうがいをする

マスクは花粉を予防するためには最も効果的なグッズです。最近では花粉を予防するための機能が高いマスクもたくさん売られています。また、普通のマスクでも水で湿らせたガーゼを中にはさむことによって90%以上の花粉を予防することができます。

花粉症の予防その5:花粉が室内に入ることを防ぐ

花粉が室内に入ってしまっては、家でゆっくりくつろぐことができませんね。外からの花粉の侵入を予防するためのポイントをみてみましょう。

  • 衣服で持ち込まない:外出時には花粉の付着しにくい素材の服を着用する。また、家に入る前には衣服や髪についた花粉をはたき落とす。
  • 洗濯物、布団で持ち込まない:洗濯物や布団は花粉の飛散の多い日は外に干すことは避ける。外に干した場合は、取り込む際によくはたいて花粉を落とす。布団はさらに表面を掃除機で吸うと効果的。
  • ドアや窓を閉める

花粉症の予防その6:室内での花粉の飛散を防ぐ

花粉が室内に入らないように予防に気を遣っても、やはりどうしても室内に花粉が侵入してしまう場合があります。このような場合、室内にたまっている花粉が飛散しないようにすることが花粉症の予防には大切です。

【室内で花粉が飛散しないようにするポイント】

  • 掃除をこまめに行う:フローリングの床は拭き掃除が効果的。
  • 加湿器を利用する:スギ花粉は湿気を含むと重くなって落下するため、室内の湿度を上げるとよい。
  • 枕元をチェック:ベッドにも花粉はたまっているため、寝る前に枕まわりの1mぐらいを水で湿らせたティッシュなどでふき取る。

ここまで、花粉にできるだけ触れないように生活するポイントをご紹介しましたが、他にも花粉シーズン中にできる予防方法があります。これを以下にご紹介します。

花粉症の予防その7:アルコール、タバコを控える

タバコを吸うと、花粉症の症状を悪化させます。これは、鼻の粘膜にタバコの煙やニコチンが作用すると、鼻の粘膜の血管が拡張し、血管から血液の液体成分が大量に出ることになり、鼻水が出やすくなってしまうためです。

また、アルコールにも血管を拡張させる作用があるため、同様に花粉症の症状が悪化します。また、花粉症を予防するための薬を服用している場合は、薬の副作用である眠気が出やすくなってしまいます。

花粉症の予防その8:ストレスをコントロールする

花粉症でくしゃみ、鼻水などが出るのは、鼻の粘膜でおきたアレルギー反応が自律神経系を介して作用するためです。

自律神経系のバランスを崩さないようにするためには、ストレスをうまくコントロールすることが大切です。このためには、過労や睡眠不足にならないように注意したり、適度な運動をしたりすることが効果的です。

まとめ:花粉症は予防次第で軽減することができます

鼻水や鼻づまり、目のかゆみなど、花粉症の症状が出始めると快適な生活を送ることが難しくなりますね。花粉のシーズンが訪れる度にこのような状況になるのでは、気分も滅入ってしまいます。

しかし、花粉症は様々な方法で予防をすることができるものです。花粉症を予防するためのポイントをもう一度まとめてみました。
【花粉症を予防するポイント】

  • 薬物療法
  • 減感作療法
  • レーザー治療
  • 身体に入る花粉を防ぐ
  • 花粉が室内に入ることを防ぐ
  • 室内での花粉の飛散を防ぐ
  • アルコール、タバコを控える
  • ストレスをコントロールする

花粉症は一度かかってしまうと長く付き合わなければならない症状です。毎年必ず訪れる花粉のシーズンをできるだけ快適に過ごすために、本記事が少しでもお役に立てば幸いです。

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