Home / 健康 / 健康全般 / 花粉症 / 花粉症は注射で治る?花粉症の新しい治療方法「注射」について
予防接種、インフルエンザ、注射
予防接種、インフルエンザ、注射

花粉症は注射で治る?花粉症の新しい治療方法「注射」について

注射

 
花粉症の治療法にはいろいろあります。食事や薬などから始まり手術なんて方法もあります。その中で注射という治療法があるのはご存知ですか。まだまだ受けられるところも限られたり、保険診療外や副作用など、身近なものではありませんが、内服薬が効かないという方は一考してみても。

こちらでは、花粉症の新しい治療方法「注射」についてご紹介します。

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花粉症の治療

花粉症は、何故起こるのか

注射

花粉症は、アトピー性皮膚炎やぜんそくなどと同じアレルギー疾患の1つといわれています。アレルギーとは、異物を撃退するからだの防御反応が過剰に起こってしまうことです。アレルギーを引き起こす原因物質を”アレルゲン”といいます。花粉症の場合、アレルゲンはスギやヒノキを代表とする花粉です。

予防が大事

花粉アレルギーの症状を防ぐポイントは、アレルゲンである花粉への接触を避けることにあります。日常生活では次のような点に気をつけましょう。

  • 風の強い日は外出を避ける
  • 帰宅後は洗顔やうがいをし、鼻をかむ
  • 外出時には、マスク、帽子、めがねを着用する
  • 家に入るときは、衣類の花粉を払ってから。花粉を家に持ち込まないようにする
  • 窓や戸をしっかり閉める
  • 外で干した布団や洗濯物には花粉がつくので、取り込む前によく払う
  • 室内をこまめに清掃する

花粉症の治療方法

花粉症の治療方法にはいくつかのものがあります。保険診療外だったり、病院によって取り入れているものいないものがあるので、ご自身で説明をしっかり受けてから判断しましょう。

内服薬

くしゃみ、鼻水、鼻づまりなどの原因となるヒスタミンという物質をおさえる成分が入っています。鼻、目、のどなどそれぞれに働いて、花粉症のつらい症状をやわらげます。

点鼻薬

鼻づまりを速やかにとめることができます。また、鼻の粘膜の充血やはれをおさえ、鼻のとおりをよくします。

目薬

目のかゆみや充血をやわらげます。

注射

上記の内服のみでは効果が少ない方にお勧めの治療方法です。

減感作療法
原因となる花粉(抗原)を突きとめ、その花粉の成分を注射することによって、人為的に抗原にならしてしまおうという、いわば「予防接種」のようなもので、根治が期待できる唯一の治療法です。しかし、効果が現れるまでに通常3~4年もかかる上、完全に治る人の割合はおおむね6割以下にとどまっており、まだまだ、改良の余地があります。

最近では従来の注射法に替わる「経口減感作療法」などが、副作用が少なく簡便で効果的な治療法として期待されており、近い将来臨床の現場に登場する可能性があります。

ヒスタグロビン注射 
この注射は症状が出る前に終えておかないと効果がありません。アレルギー性鼻炎・喘息などで保険適応があり、花粉症ではヒスタミンという物質が過剰な生体反応を起こします。ヒスタグロビンを定期的に注射することでこの抗体をつくりアレルギー反応でヒスタミンが生産されても、耐性ができて反応を抑えられるのです。週1、2回の注射を4-6回続けます。これで約1シーズン効果があります。

プラセンタ注射
もともとは更年期障害などの治療に使用されていましたが、全身の細胞が活性化され、老化のスピードが落ちることで細胞レベルでの若返りと修復を行います。更に、免疫システムにも効果があり、自然治癒力および免疫能を高めることにより身体の不調やストレスを回復する効果があります。肌の美白効果、更年期障害、アレルギー性鼻炎、アトピー性皮膚炎などに有効とされています。ただこの注射を打つと献血ができません。自費診療となり、受けられるところもかぎられるようです。

ステロイド注射
『ケナコルト』などの、持続型副腎皮質ホルモン注射です。注射一回のみで体内に貯留し続け、身体にステロイドを長期間(2週間~数ヶ月)補充し続けるので、花粉症の症状が劇的に改善される薬です。注射を打った翌日にはすっきりするほどの効果があります。症状の改善はすごい強いですが、治す薬ではなく炎症を抑える薬です。花粉症が「治る」わけではありません。

副作用に注意
しかし、それほどの効果があるなら副作用もあります。いままで認められている副作用はホルモンバランスの乱れ、生理が止まる、内臓疾患、免疫力の低下、免疫の低下による感染症の誘発、精神の変調、緑内障、血糖値が上がる、骨がもろくなる、電解質異常、胃潰瘍、肥満など。日本耳鼻咽喉科学会などからはおすすめでないものとされています。

翌年も同じことをしないと効果が無いなどのリバウンドも予想されます。女性の場合は、次の生理に若干影響することがありますので、妊娠を希望している場合は注射しないほうがいいです。また、糖尿病患者、風邪をひいている患者、感染症で治療中の患者、消化性潰瘍で治療中の患者には、慎重に検討すべきだそう。こちらも打てるところが限られるようです。

まとめ:花粉症の新しい治療方法「注射」を知ろう

内服のみでは効果が少ない方にお勧めの治療方法として注射があります。ただ保険診療外だったり、副作用があるものなどまだまだ身近なものではないようです。どのようなものがあるかおさらいしておきましょう。

  • 減感作療法
  • ヒスタグロビン注射
  • プラセンタ注射
  • ステロイド注射

まだまだ確立されていない治療方法です。医師の説明をしっかり聞いた上で、判断してくださいね。

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