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お医者さん
お医者さん

多様なインフルエンザ治療薬と処方

医者

インフルエンザ治療薬は患者のインフルエンザの症状の程度に応じて種々のものが処方されることとなります。最近ではインフルエンザ治療薬は様々なタイプのものが開発されてきており、インフルエンザの患者の症状に応じて様々なものを選択して処方されることになっています。

インフルエンザ治療薬の決定は最終的には医師が行いますが多様なインフルエンザ治療薬の中から一般的にはどのような基準でインフルエンザ治療薬を選ぶのでしょうか。

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多様なインフルエンザ治療薬

医師

インフルエンザ治療薬といえば、かつては圧倒的に利用されていたのはタミフルでした。現在でもタミフルはインフルエンザ治療薬の中心的位置を占めているということができ、その利用量は非常に多いのが現状です。

しかし、最近では、インフルエンザ治療薬も多様なものが開発されています。インフルエンザ治療薬は現在ではタミフルだけではないというのが現状です。インフルエンザ治療薬はどのようなタイプがどのような基準で処方されるのでしょうか。

もちろんインフルエンザ治療薬の処方は最終的には医師が専門的な判断のもとで処方するものですが、インフルエンザ治療薬の処方についてある程度、一般的なルールはあります。ここでは、多様なインフルエンザ治療薬についてその特徴や処方の一般的なルールについて見ていきたいと思います。

入院が必要ではない場合に処方されるインフルエンザ治療薬

インフルエンザの症状も多様ですので、その症状の重さ・程度によって処方されるインフルエンザ治療薬も異なってきます。

インフルエンザ患者のタイプとしてもっとも多いのは、入院が必要ではない一般の外来患者の方に対する治療薬です。

一般の外来患者の方にはインフルエンザ治療薬として処方されるのは、タミフルリレンザ・イナビルといった各種のインフルエンザ治療薬です。リレンザはタミフルと異なり、吸入タイプのインフルエンザ治療薬です。イナビルはリレンザと同じく吸入タイプのインフルエンザ治療薬ですが、1回の使用で治療が完了するのが特徴的です。そのため、仕事などで忙しい方に向いているインフルエンザ治療薬です。

イナビルはつい薬を飲み忘れてしまう児童などにも処方することもありえますが、子供の場合には1回の治療の際にしっかりと吸入することができていない場合もあり得るので、タミフルやリレンザによる治療が一般的です。

なお、タミフルは子供の異常行動が一時問題となりましたが、原因が本当にタミフルであることについての立証ができなかったため、10代の場合にはタミフルの使用を控えるという方針となっています。

入院が必要な場合に処方されるインフルエンザ治療薬

次に、入院が必要な場合に処方されるインフルエンザ治療薬は様々なものとなります。まず、生命の危機まではないものの入院が必要で肺炎などにより重い合併症が生じることが予見される患者に対しては、タミフルやラピアクタが処方されるのが一般的です。

ラピアクタは注射によるインフルエンザ治療薬です。肺炎などの合併症が予見される入院患者の方の場合、吸入によるインフルエンザ治療薬は十分な効果があるか疑問が生じることがありえます。そこで、吸入形式のリレンザやイナビルは用いられないこととなります。

同じく、入院が必要で、かつ生命の危機がある程度の症状の方(重度の肺炎、脱水症状、心不全合併など)の場合にもタミフルやラピアクタが用いられます。

一方で入院したほうが良いものの、肺炎などを合併していない患者の方の場合には、医師の判断により、タミフル・ラピアクタ・リレンザ・イナビルが選択的に処方されることとなります。

このようにインフルエンザ治療薬としてどのタイプのインフルエンザ治療薬が商法されるかは症状から一般的なルールを前提にしつつも医師が専門的に判断して決定することとなります。患者としてインフルエンザ・インフルエンザ治療薬との向かい合い方としては、インフルエンザ治療薬をしっかりと服用・吸入するというということが何より大切ということができます。

また、インフルエンザ治療薬について、疑問に感じる点、利用に当たって不安を感じる点などがあれば積極的に医師に質問をすることも重要です。インフルエンザ治療薬は体に大きな影響を与えますので、利用にあたって疑問が有る際にはしっかりと説明を受けて納得した上で利用することがとても大切です。医師には当然、インフルエンザ治療薬について説明の義務があります。(アカウンタビリティ・説明責任)

一生インフルエンザにかからない体質の作り方
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まとめ:インフルエンザ治療薬処方のまとめ

以上本文で述べましたインフルエンザ治療薬の処方についての一般的なルールについてまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • 外来患者に処方されるインフルエンザ治療薬-タミフル・リレンザ・イナビル
  • 入院が必要な患者に処方されるインフルエンザ治療薬-①合併症等がない方の場合には、タミフル・ラピアクタ・リレンザ・イナビル②合併症があったり生命に危険がある可能性がある方の場合には、タミフル・ラピアクタ

このような一般的な基準を前提にしつつも、最終的には処方の決定は医師の責任と判断のもとで行われます。

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Check Also

考える

症状が似ているインフルエンザと扁桃腺炎を見分けるポイント

  インフルエンザと症状のよく …

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