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子供の命にも関わるインフルエンザ脳症とは

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インフルエンザ脳症は免疫が異常となってしまい、子供の命に関わる重大な病気です。インフルエンザ脳症にかかってしまうとけいれんや意識障害などの症状があらわれます。インフルエンザ脳症の可能性がある場合にはたとえ救急車を呼んでもすぐに医師の診断を受けることが大切です。

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子供の命に関わる・インフルエンザ脳症とは

子供

子供は抵抗力が弱いなど病気に対する耐性が決して強くありません。そのため、子供が病気にかかってしまうことは可能な限り予防・防止してあげたいものです。

子供に特にかかってほしくない病気の一つとしてインフルエンザが挙げられるでしょう。
インフルエンザは高熱が出るなど子供もたいへん苦しむため見ている親としても気の毒になってしまいます。

しかし子供のインフルエンザは、なお、おそろしい症状をもたらす場合があります。それがインフルエンザ脳症という病気です。

インフルエンザ脳症とは、インフルエンザに対して免疫機能が過剰に働いてしまう結果として体に命に関わる悪影響がでるという病気をいいます。つまり、インフルエンザウィルスは非常に高い毒性を持っていますので、そのインフルエンザウイルスを除去しようとして免疫機能が非常に活発に作用します。この際に活発な免疫反応に体が耐え切れない状態となってしまった状態がインフルエンザ脳症です。

インフルエンザ脳症が発症するときには、脳内では、「高サイトカイン脳症」という状態が生じているためにインフルエンザ脳症という病名で呼びます。インフルエンザ脳症は脳にインフルエンザウイルスが入ってしまうような状態ではなく、免疫作用の異常が発生している状態をいいます。(なお、脳にインフルエンザウィルスが入ってしまい、健康を害する状態はインフルエンザ脳炎といいます。)

インフルエンザ脳症は、意識障害やけいれん、そして異常行動という症状を伴いあっという間に命を失ってしまうことがある病気です。異常に気づいて病院に連れて行ったときにはすでに手遅れとなっているというケースもありえます。インフルエンザ脳症の発症はほとんどが1歳から5歳程度までの幼児です。インフルエンザ脳症は、子供の命をあっという間に奪ってしまうたいへんおそろしい病気です。

インフルエンザ脳症は毎年100人から200人程度が発症してしまうと言われます。ただ、100パーセント死亡するというわけではなく、治療で命を取り留めることも十分あります。ただ、てんかんなどの後遺症を残すこともあり、やはりおそろしい病気であるということができます。

インフルエンザ脳症の症状

子供が万一、インフルエンザ脳症にかかってしまった場合には以下のような諸症状を呈します。まず、けいれんや突然意識を失うなどの意識障害が生じます。他にも異常行動を引き起こします。つまり、親を認識できなくなる・手を食べようとする(対象を正しく認識することができなくなる)、アニメのキャラクターや動物が現実にいるような幻覚を見る、大きな恐怖感を訴える、突然怒り出したり泣き出したり大声で歌を歌うなどの行動です。

これらの行動があれば「なにかおかしい」ということには気づきますが、インフルエンザ脳症である可能性をうたがい、即座に病院へ連れていくことが大切です。深夜であれば急患として、ケースによっては救急車を呼んでも良いということができるでしょう。インフルエンザ脳症は、1秒を争います。

仮に治療が遅れてしまうと、その後、多臓器不全などが生じ、死亡に至ることがあります。

インフルエンザ脳症の予防はインフルエンザ予防がもっとも大切

インフルエンザ脳症にかかってしまった場合には、免疫の異常を抑えるための専門的な治療が行われます。インフルエンザ脳症の治療は専門的なものですので、医師に任せるほかはありません。

インフルエンザ脳症を予防するためには、何より子供がインフルエンザにかからないように予防することが一番です。つまり、インフルエンザにかからなければインフルエンザ脳症になることはないということです。

インフルエンザの予防には、基本的なことを徹底することが最大の予防効果をもたらします。つまり、インフルエンザ流行の季節は外出時のマスク着用、帰宅時のうがい手洗いを徹底するよう生活指導することがインフルエンザにかかることを予防する最大のポイントです。

娘がインフルエンザ脳症で障害児になりました
神崎 津もよ
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まとめ:仮にインフルエンザ脳症の疑いがあればすぐに病院へ

以上、本文で述べましたインフルエンザ脳症に関する知識のポイントをまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • インフルエンザ脳症はインフルエンザウィルスを除去しようとして免疫が異常に作用してしまうことで発症します。主として1歳から5歳程度までの子供に発症するのがインフルエンザ脳症です
  • インフルエンザ脳症にかかってしまうとけいれんや意識障害、異常行動などの諸症状が発症します。インフルエンザ脳症の可能性がある場合には、深夜などでもすぐに病院へ連れて行かなくてはなりません
  • インフルエンザ脳症を予防するためには、インフルエンザ自体を予防することがもっとも重要です。インフルエンザ流行の季節にはうがい手洗いと外出時のマスク着用を徹底されることが大切です

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