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風邪をひいてる女性
風邪をひいてる女性

喘息とインフルエンザの関係

風邪をひいている女性

 
喘息というと子供の病気と思われがちですが、成人でも発症することがあります。特に今、20代に咳喘息が流行っています。喘息の人がインフルエンザにかかると喘息の発作や呼吸困難も起こりやすくなります。喘息の発作で命を落とす人もいるので注意しないといけません。

こちらでは、喘息とインフルエンザの関係についてご紹介します。

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喘息とインフルエンザ

喘息とは

うどん

喘息は、喘(あえ)ぎ、息(いき)をする病気です。ヒューヒューゼーゼーと笛が鳴るような呼吸音(喘鳴=ぜんめい)が特徴で、夜中や明け方に咳こむことが多いです。発作的に喘鳴が出現し、息苦しさを感じたりする。このような発作がくり返し起こってくる病気、それが喘息です。

原因
喘息の原因を単純に一つに絞ることができるケースも存在しますが意外と少 ないよう。体質、環境、生育歴、疲労、後天的な体作りの努力など複合的、総合的に関連して、起ることの方が多いです。

20代に激増中!咳喘息

発作がなく、咳だけが出る喘息を咳喘息といいます。咳喘息は、タンを絡まない咳が8週間以上続きます。特に深夜や明け方に激しい咳が出る事が多く、寝不足の原因にもなり得ます。

原因
咳喘息は、風邪やインフルエンザにかかると発症しやすいと言われています。また、ストレスを受けると、気道が過敏になり、咳が出やすくなることからストレスも一因となっています。

喘息患者はインフルエンザが重症化しやすい?

喘息などの呼吸器疾患のある人は、空気の通り道である気道と肺に慢性的な炎症があります。インフルエンザに感染すると、インフルエンザの症状が進むとともに、喘息の発作や呼吸困難も起こりやすくなり、それによって気道や肺の状態がさらに悪くなって、症状が重くなりやすいのです。肺炎を発症したりすることも。新型ではさらに重症化しやすいことが心配されています。

インフルエンザと喘息の対策方法

予防接種は早めに

インフルエンザウィルスは通常12月~3月に流行します。気管支喘息のあるお子さんは、喘息発作が重症化することがありますので、特にインフルエンザワクチンの接種をお勧めします。インフルエンザワクチンは生後6ヵ月から接種可能です。注意する副反応として、まれですが接種後に喘息発作が誘発されることがあります。体調の良い時期に、できるだけ12月までに接種を終わらせることが大切です。

ザナミビル(リレンザ)吸入はNG

気管支喘息を患っている人ではインフルエンザの罹患により重症喘息発作をきたしやすくなるので罹患中は喘息の管理を厳重に行う必要があります。ザナミビル(リレンザ)吸入は喘息発作の悪化の報告があるために治療薬としては推奨されません。

喘息予防対策

アレルゲンを避ける
アレルギーの発生源になる物質が予想される場合は、まず調べて明らかなものは遠ざけることが必要です。もっとも多い原因はハウスダストですが、カビやダニ、花粉や動物のふけなどにも原因があります。ハウスダストの場合は、掃除を徹底的にすることが大切。掃除機だけでなく、拭き掃除もやっておくとよいでしょう。ダニは絨毯、ソファー、ぬいぐるみなどにつきやすいとされています。フローリングに張り替えたり、繊維から合成皮革や皮のイスにするなど工夫しましょう。

感染の予防
風邪やインフルエンザにかからない事が大切です。基本的な事にはなりますが、手洗い、うがいなどをしっかりとおこないましょう。また冬など風邪やインフルエンザが流行する季節は、あまり外を出歩かないようにしてください。

風邪やインフルエンザは飛沫感染ですから、唾などを介して人に移ると言う特徴があります。近くの人がくしゃみをして唾が飛んできたら、風邪がうつってしまうのです。ですからマスクもしっかり着用しておきましょう。

気温の急激な変化に注意
急に冷気を吸うと刺激になります。暖かい室内から外に出る時にはマスクを着手するのがおススメです。

激しい運動
短距離走など激しい運動は発作を誘発します。運動まえにβ-刺激剤を吸入しておくとある程度防ぐことができます。水泳は比較的喘息を引き起こしにくい運動なので、喘息をお持ちの方にはお勧めです。

禁酒
アルコールを飲むと、体内でアセトアルデヒドと呼ばれる物質が作り出されます。アセトアルデヒドは、気道を収縮させる作用がある事で知られています。気道が収縮されると、咳が出やすくなります。その結果、咳喘息を誘発する事になるのです。お酒を止めれば気道を収縮させる働きのあるアセトアルデヒドは体内で作られなくなります。

禁煙
患者はもちろん、間接的な喫煙も同様です。喘息の患者の周りの人もできるだけ協力して発作の予防に努めてあげることが必要です。

ストレス解消
咳は気道が狭まる事で、激しく出てしまいます。ストレスを受けると、気道が過敏になります。そしてその結果、咳が出やすくなるのです。ですから、咳喘息予防のためにも、ストレスをあまりためないようにしましょう。

ストレス発散方法は、人によって様々です。適度な運動、余暇を楽しむ、リラックスできる環境を整えるといった工夫で上手にストレスを発散させてください。

一生インフルエンザにかからない体質の作り方
村上 一裕
フォレスト出版
売り上げランキング: 100,316

まとめ:インフルエンザと喘息の関係

喘息のある人は、インフルエンザに感染すると症状が重くなりやすいです。対策方法をおさらいしておきましょう。

  • 予防接種は早めに
  • ザナミビル(リレンザ)吸入はNG
  • アレルゲンを避ける
  • 感染の予防
  • 気温の急激な変化に注意
  • 激しい運動を避ける
  • 禁酒・禁煙
  • ストレス解消

この記事を参考に、普段から喘息予防を心がけてくださいね。

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